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Record of meeting held on 4 Nov. 1980.

UN Document Symbol A/C.3/35/SR.44
Convention Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)
Document Type Summary Record
Session 35th
Type Document

23 p.

Subjects Cultural Values, Economic Social and Cultural Rights, Religious Intolerance, Rights of The Child, Science and Technology, Youth, Persons with Disabilities

Extracted Text

United Nations GENERAL ASSEMBLY THIRTY-FIFTH SESSION Official Records* THIRD COMMITTEE 44th meeting held on Tuesday, 4 November 1980 at 3 p.m. New York SUMMARY RECORD OF THE 44th MEETING Chairman: Mr. GARVALOV (Bulgaria) CONTENTS AGENDA ITEM 69: INTERNATIONAL YOUTH YEAR: PARTICIPATION, DEVELOPMENT, PEACE: REPORT OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL AGENDA ITEM 8l: POLICIES AND PROGRAMMES RELATING TO YOUTH: REPORT OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL AGENDA ITEM 71: PROBLEMS OF THE ELDERLY AND THE AGED: REPORT OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL AGENDA ITEM 73. QUESTION OF A CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD AGENDA ITEM 70: INTERNATIONAL YEAR OF DISABLED PERSONS: REPORT OF THE SECRETARY-CENERAL AGENDA ITEM 70: PRESERVATION AND FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF CULTURAL VALUES, INCUDING THE PROTECTION, RESTITUTION AND RETURN OF CULTUKRAL AND ARTISTIC PROPERTY AGENDA ITEM 68: ELIMINATION OF ALL FORMS OF RELIGIOUT AGENDA ITEM 72: HUMAN RIGHTS AND SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVFLOPMENTS AGENDA ITEM 76: INTERNATIONAL COVENANTS ON HUMAN RIGHTS (a) REPORT OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS COMMITTEE (b) FUTURE MEETINGS OF THE HUMAN EIGHTS COMMITTEE! RFPOPT OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL (c) STATUS OF THE INTERNATIONAL COVENANT ON ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL RIGHTS, THE INTERNATIONAL COVENANT ON CIVIL AND POLITICAL RIGHTS AND THE OPTIONAL PROTOCOL TO THE INTERNATIONAL COVENANT OH CIVIL AND POLITICAL RIGHTS: REPORT OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL Distr. GENERAL. A/C.3/35/SR.44 13 November 1980 ENGLISH ORIGINAL: SPANISH 80-57244 A/C.3/35/SR.44 English Page 2 The meeting was called to order at 3.10 p.m. AGENDA ITS! 69: INTERNATIONAL YOUTH YEAR: PARTICIPATION, DEVELOPMENT, PEACE: REPORT OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL (A/35/361 and Add.l; A/34/855; A/C.3/35/3; A/C.3/35/L.26) AGENDA ITEM 81: POLICIES AND PROGRAMMES RELATING TO YOUTH: REPORT OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL (A/35/503; A/C.3/35/3) AGENDA ITEM 71: PROBLEMS OF THE ELDERLY AND THE AGED: REPORT OF THE SECRETARY-OENERAL (A/35/130 and Add.l and Corr.l; A/C.3/35/8) AGENDA ITEM 73: QUESTION OF A CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD (A/C.3/35/L.14) AGENDA ITEM 79: INTERNATIONAL YEAR OF DISABLED PERSONS: REPORT OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL (A/C.3/35/5; A/35/274 and Add.l, A/35/291. A/35/444 and Add.l) AGENDA ITEM 70: PRESERVATION AND FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF CULTURAL VALUES, INCLUDING THE PROTECTION, RESTITUTION AND RETURN OF CULTURAL AND ARTISTIC PROPERTY (A/35/349. A/35/419; A/C.3/35/L.23) AGENDA ITEM 68: ELIMINATION OF ALL FORMS OF RELIGIOUS INTOLERANCE AGENDA ITEM 72: HUMAN RIGHTS AND SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS (A/35/202) AGENDA ITEM 76: INTERNATIONAL COVENANTS ON HUMAN RIGHTS (A/35/65, A/35/96, A/35/132, A/35/137, A/35/173, A/35/105, A/35/288, A/35/434, A/35A37, A/35/462) (a) REPORT OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS COMMITTEE (A/35/40; A/C.3/35/4) (b) FUTURE MEETINGS OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS COMMITTEE: REPORT OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL (A/35/417) (c) STATUS OF THE INTERNATIONAL COVENANT ON ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL RIGHTS, THE INTERNATIONAL COVENANT OF CIVIL AND POLTICAL RIGHTS AND THE OPTIONAL PROTOCOL TO THE INTERNATIONAL COVENANT ON CIVIL AND POLITICAL RIGHTS REPORT OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL (A/35/3/Add.34. A/35/195) 1. Mr. THARCISSE (Burundi) said that his country, where more than half of the population was aged under 30, welcomed the General Assembly's decision to designate 1985 as International Youth Year. Burundi was aware of the role which young people should play in the development process and gave them very special attention, as reflected in its policies and programmes for youth. From primary school age a spirit of industry was inculcated into young people. To avoid children feeling abruptly uprooted from their environment, they were assured of a comprehensive education covering all aspects of the everyday life of the population. A Youth Department had been set up within the Ministry of Youth, Sports and Culture and its principal task was to mobilize young people in rural areas for the purpose of A/C.3/35/SR.44 English Page 3 (Mr. Tharcisse, Burundi) production programmes. With regard to legislation, in order to combat Juvenile delinquency, the authorities had established a programme for the protection of minors by incorporating provisions into the Criminal Code. In the political area, young people in Burundi through the Rwagasone Revolutionary Youth, participated in finding solutions to problems affecting them and had a hand in running the country's affairs. 2. its country had always made a practice of inculcating the ideals of peace, justice and human solidarity in young people and had always supported the cause of peoples struggling for independence and self-determination. That support was very frequently reflected by the youth of Burundi, which had always manifested its sympathy for national liberation movements such as ANC, PAC and SWAPO. 3. The question of youth was closely related to that of culture. In that connexion, the report submitted by UNESCO (A/35/349), which highlighted the function of culture in the life of peoples, was particularly important. One of his country's principal concerns was to rehabilitate end revitalize its national culture. In colonial times, certain works of art and museum pieces of inestimable value for the culture of the nation had been removed from their land of origin and sent to museums in the metropolitan countries, thereby depriving Burundi of valuable sources and references of its history. A country derived its identity and its specific character from its culture. Cultural integrity enhanced the sovereignty of every State. Consequently, it was absolutely essential that Burundi's cultural property should be restored so that it could reconstitute its entire cultural heritage. 4. Mr. DOMINGUEZ PASIER (Spain) said that the 1978 Spanish Constitution contained a whole series of provisions which were identical, sometimes to the letter, with those contained in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Moreover, the Spanish Parliament had been adopting a variety of laws which were largely a detailed reflection of some of the provisions of that international instrument. 5. With regard to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, it was encouraging to note that, at the first regular session of the Economic and Social Council, the forking Croup responsible for monitoring compliance by States parties with their obligations under that instrument had begun to work effectively and to review substantive reports submitted by States. Spain was a member of the working Group and was aware of the difficulties confronting the Group in the performance of its duties. It might have been after to have established a committee of experts similar to that which reviewed one other Covenant. In any event, specific solutions would have to be found without going beyond the provisions of the Covenant itself. 6. His delegation attached the greatest importance to Economic and Social Council resolution 1980/24, by which the Council had decided to review the mandate and functioning of the Working Group at its organizational session for 1981. One of the handicaps faced by the Working Group had been the very limited time at its A/C.3/35/SR.44 English Page 4 (Mr. Dominguez Pasier, Spain) disposal for studying a large number of reports. Another question was the format and content of the Working Croup's report to the Economic and Social Council, which should be similar to that of the report of the Human Right3 Committee. Consideration should be given to the possibility that the Working Croup might submit a report to the Economic and Social Council at its second regular session or at its resumed second regular session. 7. Referring to document A/C.3/35/4 submitted to the Committee in connexion with item 76 and containing a communication to the Secretary-General from the Permanent Representative of Ecuador, annexed to which was the Riobamba Charter of Conduct, he said that, as an observer to the Andean Pact, Spain welcomed the adoption of that important declaration, which laid the foundation for effective co-operation within a specific regional framework in regard to the protection and safeguarding of human rights. Each of the provisions of the Charter of Conduct was precise and had its own significance, but special attention should be given to paragraph 3. 8. Mrs. SHERMAN PETER (Bahamas) said that it would be accurate to describe the Bahamas as a young country, since it had only been independent for the past seven years and some 67.9 per cent of its population was under the age of 30, and 47 per cent under the age of 14. In recent years the international community had been concentrating increasing attention on the various social groups, including youth. The Bahamas welcomed the efforts made by the United Nations and its specialized agencies to maintain channels of communication with youth and youth organizations. It also welcomed the measures adopted to ensure that the problems of youth were not ignored. Consequently, her delegation had sponsored resolution 34/151, by which the General Assembly had decided to designate 1985 as International Youth Year. The Bahamas believed that, for the International Youth Year to be successful, the necessary action should be taken at the national level. Her Government had therefore adopted a policy of planning Jointly with young people. When the Ministry of Youth, Sports and Community Affairs had been ret up in 1977, one of its priorities had been to establish the National Youth Advisory Council, which provided a continuous flow of ideas to the Government for the formulation of youth policies and programmes. 9. The Bahamas emphasized self-selp and self-reliance for its youth, in accordance with prescribed national goals. To meet that objective, a major share of national finances was allocated to the promotion of the further development of education. Programmes being carried out in that area included vocational and technical seminars and courses and work programmes and other programmes designed to prepare young people for economic opportunities. The Bahamas had also embarked on the restructuring of its educational system in order to satisfy and complement its development needs, Cognizant of the fact that young people were often hampered by a lack of critical knowledge, not only of national and international issues but also of themselves, the Government was providing vital information services in those areas. Similarly, the Bahamas would seek to expand its bilateral and regional relationships with the international youth community and, in that connexion, the International Year would present a valuable opportunity to share A/C.3/35/SR.44 English Page 5 (Mrs. Sherman Peter, Bahamas) common experiences and to reflect or. the successes and failures of various initiatives in the field of youth at the national, regional and international levels. 10. In conclusion, her delegation sincerely hoped that the negotiations regarding the Advisory Committee for the International Youth Year could be concluded at the current session, so that the Committee could start its very important task early in 1981. 11. Mr. FRAMBACH (German Democratic Republic) said that the report of the Secretary-General in document A/35/195 Justified the appeal to all States which had not yet done so to ratify the International Covenants on Human Rights. Much remained to be done in that field, particularly for a number of States which boasted of their respect for human rights, in contradiction to the real state of their internal affairs, and claimed to dictate to others how to observe those rights. 12. The great significance of the two Covenants in promoting international co-operation among states in the field of human rights was also reflected in the report of the Human Rights Committee to the General Assembly (A/35/40). The co-operation of States with the Human Rights Committee was a substantial element in the effective implementation of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, article 40 of which contained criteria for the reports to be submitted by States parties and for the consideration of those reports by the Committee. The Committee should adhere to that mandate and not replace it by a procedure of controls. In that connexion, the work or the Group of Experts should be based solely on the provisions of the Covenant, and not on rules of procedure which had not been adopted by consensus by the States parties to the Covenant. 13. Referring to the impact of science and technology on human rights, he recalled that the problem had been discussed in the United Nations for over 10 years, and that a number of resolutions had been adopted which could be taken as a basis for a further examination of the problem. However, it seemed that the discussions had declined in intensity over the last few years, and no longer reflected the importance of scientific and technological progress for the realization of human rights in practice. 14. In the context of human rights, he said that the German Democratic Republic was deeply concerned about the fate of the First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Paraguayan Communist Party, Antonio Maidana, and of the Paraguayan labour leader, Emilio Roa, and demanded immediate information on the whereabouts of those patriots. 15. The German Democratic Republic regarded the signing of the Covenants on Human Rights by the Pol Pot regime as a provocation towards the United Nations and an insult to world public opinion. Such steps could not veil that regime's cruel crimes or make its representation at the United Nations legal. In the present-day world, no developments in the economy or society were conceivable A/C.3/35/SR.44 English Page 6 (Mr. Frambach, German Democratic Republic) unless they were based on the achievements of science and technology. Nevertheless, it would be unrealistic to assume that new findings in science and technology would automatically bring about positive developments. Day after day, it could be seen how science and technology were misused to step up the arms race, develop weapons of mass destruction and threaten peace and security. Science and technology were further misused to intensify the neo-colonialist exploitation of the developing countries, and to make possible an ever-higher degree of exploitation of the working people in capitalist countries. In the Declaration on the Use of Scientific and Technological Progress in the Interests of Peace and for the Benefit of Mankind, the enormous possibilities for the creative use of scientific and technological discoveries were stressed, but the danger of their abuse was also noted. 16. Mrs. SHRESTHA (Nepal) said that the proclamation of the International Year of Disabled Persons was a reflection of the humanitarian principles embodied in the Charter of the United Nations and was aimed at ensuring the full integration of disabled persons into society. Therefore, any attempt to find solutions for the problems of disabled persons was closely related to national development strategies. Disabled persons must be absorbed into the society in which they lived, and it was therefore imperative that there should be a radical change in attitudes which impeded their full integration and social rehabilitation. The purpose of the Year was to encourage the rehabilitation of the estimated 500 million disabled persons in the world, the vast majority of then in the developing countries. To solve the problem, it was essential to take urgent steps to prevent disability and to train persons responsible for rehabilitating the disabled. It was her delegation's view that science and technology could be used for the prevention of such disabilities, both in the developed and in the developing countries. Nepal commended the role of WHO, UNICEF and ILO in that respect. 17. Her delegation had noted with satisfaction the pragmatic recommendations for activities at the national, regional and international levels made by the Advisory Committee for the Year of Disabled Persons in a Plan of Action for the Year focused on primary health care, rehabilitation and prevention. The effective implementation of those recommendations would help to spread an awareness that societies had an obligation towards disabled persons. 18. In the developing countries, although social organizations played a vital role, the welfare of disabled persons was still a challenge, and the problem was especially acute in Nepal, where an estimated 2 to 2.5 per cent of the total population was physically disabled. The Government of Nepal, in collaboration with non-governmental organizations, had established several institutions for the training and rehabilitation of the physically disabled, in particular the blind and the deaf. In response to the United Nations' call for the observance of 1981 as the International Year of Disabled Persons by all Member States, Nepal had constituted a National Social Services Co-ordination Council to promote and co-ordinate the social welfare activities carried out by the Government and various voluntary social organizations. The Council had established a A/C.3/35/SR.44 English Page 7 (Mrs. Shrestha. Nepal) Co-ordination Committee for services to the handicapped which had prepared a comprehensive plan of action at the national and international levels with a view to carrying out various phased programmes throughout the country. 19. During the first phase of the national plan of action, preparatory work would be carried out: a national seminar would be held to draw up a list of suggestions and recommendations, a survey would be conducted on disabled persons, and other related programmes would be launched; in the second phase, existing services and schemes would be expanded and new institutions would be establishes in various zones of the country. When the national population census was carried out, a questionnaire related to disabled persons would be included. A plan to consolidate and expand the activities of the Nepal Orthopaedic Appliance Centre would also be initiated and other programmes would be prepared for. training teachers of disabled persons; in the third phase of the plan, it was proposed to make efforts to help disabled persons a continuous process. The implementation of the entire plan 01 action would cost 5.4 million rupees and Nepal would very much appreciate external assistance and co-operation in the areas of education and vocational rehabilitation in order to implement a series of short-term and long-term projects. 20. Her delegation believed that the establishment of a Special Fund for the Year would help to alleviate the financial constraints, and it called upon all rich countries to contribute generously to such a Fund. It also supported the idea of launching an International Institute for the Rehabilitation of Disabled Persons which would assist the Governments of developing countries to integrate disabled persons into the social development process, and could become the nucleus of other institutions established on a regional basis. 21. Mr. LUNGU (Zambia) said, in reference to those items of the agenda relating to youth, that the Zambian Government had always been conscious of the important role that young people must play in the future development of Zambia. Since the country's independence, the Government had kept all problems relating to youth under constant review. Zambia hoped to attain such policy objectives as the reduction of unemployment among young people through their direct participation in production schemes, in decision-making and in cultural and other activities. 22. The people of Zambia recognized the importance of working in close co-operation with organizations outside the country in order to exchange views on how best to work out progremmes to improve the situation of young people throughout the world. Such an approach would call for co-ordinated action at the international level. In that regard, the youth organizations of Zambia were doing everything possible to ensure an exchange of ideas among themselves and with other similar organizations abroad. The Ministry of Youth and Sports was co-ordinating those activities carefully, together with the United National Independence Party in which the youth of Zambia played on active role. 23. His delegation hoped that the International Youth Year would be the beginning of a long and continuing process aimed at improving the quality of life of young people. A/C.3/35/SR.44 English Page 8 (Mr. Lungu, Zambia) 24. Governments should make adequate provision in their development plans to cater for the well-being of the aged and the disabled. The problems of the aged in both the developing and the developed countries were of concern to all; they differed only in degree. In Zambia, for example, those problems were not on a large scale. That was due to the traditional practice of support for the aged by the members of the family, a practice further strengthened by Zambia's philosophy of humanism. 25. The few remaining problems were dealt with by the Department of Social Welfare, Zambia shared the general concern and was working hard to strengthen the international machinery to meet the aspirations and needs of the elderly. 26. The problems of the disabled were also of concern to his Government, The care for people with all kinds of disabilities was governed by an act of Parliament. In that connexion, preventive and curative measures had been adopted. With a view to the proper observance of the International Year of Disabled Persons, his Government had established a national commission to draw up and execute the necessary programmes. 27. The question of human rights was of great concern to his Government, which believed that the enjoyment of such rights was a prerequisite for all forms of development. The Zambian Constitution made clear provision for the rights of the individual, Zambia believed that all States should abide by the letter and spirit of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenants on Human Rights. 28. His delegation believed that scientific and technological advances should be used in ways that would contribute to the development of human society, not limit the enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms. The racist regime of Pretoria should be condemned for using scientific and technological developments in order to suppress the legitimate demands of the oppressed people of South Africa. 29. Mrs. THANH (Viet Nam) said that immediately after the liberation and reunification of Viet Nam, a decree-law relating to the protection, welfare and education of children had been promulgated. It guaranteed children, from birth to the age of 15, the right to enjoy all the benefits likely to promote their development with the help of the family, the State and society. Thousands of young war martyrs, orphans and disabled and mentally retarded children were receiving special care. 30. Every year since 1974, Vietnamese students had been taking international competitive examinations in mathematics. Some had won first prizes and special prizes. A young Vietnamese man had recently made a space flight thus becoming the first cosmonaut from the third world. A 21-year-old Vietnamese musical talent had recently won first prize at the Frederic Chopin international piano competition, held on 20 October 1980 at Warsaw. 31. The international community should note, however, that her Government was A/C.3/35/SR.44 English Page 9 (Mrs. **** nh. Viet Nem) running into serious obstacles because of the current situation on the country, Viet Nam was the victim of a hostile policy on the part of the imperialists and hegemonists involving the disruption of communications with the outside world and an economic blockade. The first victims of that policy were women, the new-born and children, who were suffering from malnutrition and a shortage of medicine, school materials and other essentials. 32. Viet Nam therefore welcomed the decision to draft a convention on the rights of the child that would lay down as a basic right the right to live and grow in peace; it had Joined the sponsors of the draft resolution on the convention submitted by Poland. 33. With respect to item 69, her delegation welcomed the designation by the General Assembly of 1985 as International Youth Year, with the theme "Participation, Development, Peace". The primary objective of the Vietnamese people in the education of the young was to make them aware of their role in society, so that they would commit their best efforts to the construction, and defence of the sovereignty, of the socialist homeland, on the basis of the principle that the degree of a society's enjoyment of consumer goods largely depended on the results of the efforts of the citizens, their involvement in development and production, and their contribution to the task of binding the wounds of war and reconstructing the nation of which they were sovereign masters. 34. In southern Viet Nam, the former neo-colonialist regime had bequeathed a formidable social legacy of prostitution, delinquency, vagrancy and drug abuse, which had left deep physical and psychological scars among thousands. In the five. years since liberation, tens of thousands had been cared for by the State's Social Affairs Department, in collaboration with the Vietnamese Union of Young People and the Women's Union, which had succeeded in teaching them a trade and starting them on a new life in dignity. 35. As far as the reconstruction was concerned, the young people of Viet Nam had helped in the reconstruction of cities and suburbs, bomb-destroyed villages and millions of destroyed houses, and in the recultivation of millions of hectares. During the serious floods that had devastated the country, 1 million young people had worked for months on end, organizing rescue operations, repairing houses, schools and roads, and restoring production. 36. Her delegation fully agreed that it was imperative to direct the energies, enthusiasm and creativity of the young towards the construction of a nation, the struggle for national independence and self-determination, the attainment of the economic, social and cultural progress of peoples, and the establishment of the new international economic order, which were the bases for the preservation of world peace and international co-operation and understanding. Her delegation hoped that the International Youth Year would afford everyone a good opportunity to exchange fruitful experiences with a view to ensuring the effective involvement of young people in the development of society and in the strengthening of peace, friendship and understanding among peoples. A/C.3/35/SR.44 English Page 10 37. Mr. LIGAIRI (Fiji) said that the long-term preparation for 1985, designated as International Youth Year, required a comprehensive and integrated approach to the areas which concerned youth and at all levels of policy formulation and planning. An investment in young people, whether in the form of formal or non-formal education programmes, was an investment in the future of a country, Fiji's youth policies and programmes were based on the inherent potential of the young in the process of improving the country. 38. His delegation believed that formal and non-formal school programmes were inseparable and should be complementary, with a view to the attainment of the development objectives in the social, economic and political fields. The theme for the Year ("Participation, Development, Feace") was central to any teaching programme that was normally reinforced through practical out-of-school activities; it would help young people to make the transition between school and work. The informal training schemes in Fiji were basically geared towards encouraging self-reliance, community awareness and a sense of responsibility. 39. Plans were under way to establish a national youth forum to help to achieve closer co-ordination between youth organizations and government policies on youth. His Government was providing financial assistance to most youth organizations. The grants made through the Fiji National Youth Council had been used to convene workshops for youth leaders to keep them informed of youth problems in the context of development. 40. Since achieving independence in 1970, Fiji had attached special importance to the preparation of a rural youth programme in order to involve rural youth in the national development process. To that end, many rural youth clubs had been set up under the co-ordination of the Association of District Youth Councils. One of the priorities of the programme was community service, which integrated harmoniously with the traditional social organization of the rural population, and training of youth workers and leaders. 41. The role of sport and culture in building multiracial harmony and tolerance was of great importance nationally and internationally. 42. His delegation recommended the strengthening of contacts between youth organizations representing the different social strata in terms of educational, economic, cultural and social development and appealed to the United Nations to increase its aid to the youth organizations of Member States. 43. Ms. RADIC (Yugoslavia) said that despite the efforts of its members to overcome the difficulties encountered, the Human Rights Committee had failed to achieve the abundance of work it was supposed to accomplish. Her delegation suggested a greater rationalization of the time allowed to the Committee and its experts, to be applied to Committee experts but not to Government representatives. Time could also be saved during the examination of additional reports, in respect of which representatives of States parties to the Covenant should not be subjected to questions by experts, as in the case of the examination of initial reports. Yugoslavia was in favour of meetings of the Human Rights Committee being held in developing countries and of consideration being given to the possibility of A/C.3/35/SR.44 English Page 11 (Ms. Radic, Yugoslavia) establishing a special trust fund for that purpose. Her delegation was pleased to note the positive response to the General Assembly's invitation to the countries which had not yet done so to become parties to the Covenants and the Optional Protocol. 44. The rights embodied in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights were equally important, but unfortunately the Working Croup established in accordance with Economic and Social Council decision 1978/10 and entrusted with the task of examining the reports of Governments on the implementation of the provisions of the Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights had encountered difficulties in discharging its responsibilities. 45. Bearing in mind the concerns expressed and the decisions taken in that regard in Economic and Social Council resolution 1980/24, her delegation looked forward to the report and comments to be submitted by the Secretary-General to the Council at its organizational session in 1981. with a view to helping the Council to review the composition, organization and administrative arrangements of the Working Group. 46. Mr. EDIS (United Kingdom) said that the two great International Covenants on Human Rights were based on the Universal Declaration of Kumar. Rights, which in itself had grown out of the Charter of the United Nations. They were legally binding treaties which had been agreed by consensus and what they contained was fundamental to the United Nations approach to human rights; they constituted an important part of the United Nations machinery to ensure the implementation of Member States1 commitment to human rights. 47. With regard to the Human Rights Committee, his delegation considered that it had conducted its session in a constructive manner and built up a detailed and educated exchange with States parties, including the second round of questioning with those whose reports it had examined. His delegation agreed with the Committee's report that all States parties must take their obligations seriously and urged those which had not yet done so to submit their reports as soon as Possible. 48. Regarding the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, his delegation was pleased that the Sessional Working Group of the Economic and Social Council had considered the reports of a number of States parties, including that of the United Kingdom. It trusted that States parties which had been invited to give their views on the future structure of the Group would reply to the Secretary-General so that the Economic and Social Council could review the matter in time for further reports to be properly considered in the coming year. Future work under the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights should be closely modelled on that of the Human Rights Committee in its composition and procedure. 49. With regard to the question of the elimination of all forms of religious A/C.3/35/SR.44 English Page 12 (Mr. Edis, United Kingdom) intolerance, respect for freedom of religion and conscience was one of the major right3 laid down in the Charter and proclaimed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, but whereas other such rights had been the subject of separate conventions, the right to religious freedom had not. There was not even a declaration on the subject, although a United Nations human rights body had been entrusted with the task of drafting a declaration on the subject more than 28 years earlier. But progress had been consistently hindered by a group of avowedly godless State3 and so far the Commission had adopted only four articles of a draft declaration and one paragraph of a fifth. Meanwhile, the problem of denial of the free practice of religion remained acute in large areas of Eastern Europe and had increased in other parts of the world, as in the recent case of a country whose religious minorities had been persecuted and their leaders imprisoned and executed. His delegation regretted that the Working Group on the subject had made so little progress at the latest session of the Commission on Human Rights and strongly endorsed the Commission's resolution 35 (XXXVI) calling for more time to be alloted to the working Group so that it could complete its work at the subsequent session. 50. The question of the implications for human rights of scientific and technological advances had wide-ranging ramifications and the Third Committee lacked adequate material on which to base a meaningful discussion of the subject as a whole. Hi3 delegation wa3 therefore pleased that at its recent session the Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities had commissioned from the Secretary-General a study on the implications for individual privacy of various advances in the use of electronics, which could serve as a basis for future discussions in the Committee. 51. One facet of that item on which progress could be made and was being made already was the protection of persons detained on grounds of mental ill-health, as indicated in the Secretary-General's report on that item. He was pleased that the Sub-Commission had taken action on General Assembly resolution 33/53; in 1979 it had commissioned a report from the Secretary-General on the subject and in 1980 it had entrusted a distinguished member of the Sub-Commission, Dr. Erica-Irene Daes of Greece, with the task of elaborating guidelines on procedures for determining whether adequate grounds existed for detaining persons on the grounds of mental ill-health and principles for the protection of persons suffering from mental ill-health. His delegation was particularly concerned about the misuse of psychiatry, including the detention of mentally sound people in psychiatric institutions, apparently on account of their political and religious views and for other non-medical reasons. There were reports of that practice from several parts of the world. In statements before the Sub-Commission, Amnesty International had documented a worrying number of such cases in the Soviet Union and also in South Africa. 52. On the question of a convention on the rights of the child, his delegation was prepared to work constructively towards a practical and useful instrument on that subject. A/C.3/35/SR.44 English Page 13 53. Mr. FISSEHKO (Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic) said that since the General Assembly's adoption of the decision to proclaim 19** the International Year of Disabled Persons, his country had started preparations for the observance of the Year both nationally and within the framework of the United Nations. There was growing support for the idea that the celebration of the International Year should be directed towards the adoption of national measures, since it was the countries themselves which could ensure the achievement of the main objectives of the Year: "Full participation and equality". 54. In his country, the broad guidelines for the prevention of disablement, rehabilitation, help for disabled persons and their integration into social life, were established at the government level and based on a proper understanding of the problems of disabled persons and the best way of meeting their needs. The Republic's economic and social development plan and the ministerial, institutional and enterprise plan, contained special provisions and practical measures aimed at improving working conditions, safety and health measures. 55. The State paid particular attention to those disabled as a result of the 194l-1945 war and to the families of soldiers and partisans who and been killed in service. They all enjoyed advantages such as subsidized housing, community services and use of urban transport, health care and medical care. In the past 10 years over 140,000 disabled persons had received care. 56. Special care and rehabilitation in the Byelorussian SSR took three main forms: medical rehabilitation, including physiotherapy, vocational rehabilitation and social rehabilitation. For the vocational training of disabled persons between 15 and 40 years of age there was a network of Government-financed boarding schools and technical institutes which provided training in more than 40. occupations. In addition, the trade unions had special bodies to ensure that disabled persons were employed; moreover, the laws of the land applied fully to disabled persons. 57. Special cultural institutions had been established to improve the opportunities of the blind and the deaf; they included, inter alia, vocational training institutions, rehabilitation centres and cultural centres. Disabled persons who required special care in their daily lives went to special old-people's homes where they were housed comfortably free of charge, clothed and given the medical care they needed. Those and other measures adopted in his country enabled disabled persons to participate actively in all aspects of social life. 58. His delegation had carefully studied the accounts of the preparations for the International Year of Disabled Persons contained in the report of the Secretary-General (A/35/444); those preparations included the formulation of a long-term Plan of Action. In the view of his delegation the Plan should provide for the adoption at the national level of a set of measures essential for the full social and economic rehabilitation of the disabled. The Plan of Action should take into account the fact that disabled persons fell into three categories -persons who had been disabled as a result of war, those disabled as a result of employment accidents, and those who had been disabled from birth; the situation of each group had its own characteristics. A/C.3/35/SR.44 English Page 14 (Mr. Fissenko, Byelorussian SSR) 59. The Plan of Action should emphasize the need to eliminate the threat of war, which was a direct source of suffering for millions of people throughout the world. The reduction of military budgets and the use of the fund3 thus released for peaceful and humanitarian purposes would be an excellent way of contributing to the achievement of the goals set forth in the United Nations Charter concerning the improvement of the social situation in the various countries and, in particular, assistance to disabled persons. 60. One of the first items of the Plan of Action related to the necessity of eliminating the threat of war, since wars resulted in the death and disablement of millions of people. Another important element was the need to to spare and adopt additional measures to improve safety standards at work and to increase the role of trade unions in monitoring conditions relating to safety and hygiene in the work place, since that would undoubtedly reduce the number of employment accidents which were one of the causes of disability. In addition, the system aimed at ensuring the welfare and rehabilitation of the disabled by providing free care must be strengthened. The Plan should also outline conditions that would allow the disabled to lead an active life; that was very important for all countries. 61. Within the framework of activities at the national level, particular emphasis should be placed on the organizations of the United Nations system, particularly ILO. Such agencies should intensify their activities within their respective areas of competence, with a view to improving the situation of the disabled. However, international activities within the framework of the International Year of Disabled Persons, particularly in the United Nations, should not be a substitute for the activities that must be carried out at the national level. 62. Mrs. RAJENDRA KUMARI BAJPAI (India) said it had been estimated that there were 500 million disabled persons in the world and that to help them help themselves required a sustained international effort. The General Assembly had already adopted a Plan of Action for the International Year of Disabled Persons and the report of the Advisory Committee, of which India was a member, was before the Committee in document A/35/444, 63. Traditional attitudes towards the disabled were based on charity and humanitarianism, but it would be more appropriate to view the task as one of redressing a social injustice and to emphasize both prevention and rehabilitation and adopt strategies related to the specific requirements of communities and societies. In working out such programmes, it might be appropriate to bear in mind that rehabilitation should lead also to social and economic rehabilitation within the family and community and should include the process of education, training and employment. In both prevention and rehabilitation there was a need for a continuous flow of technology to the developing countries, particularly In areas of research related to the development of aids and equipment, training and teaching methods. 64. In India, prevention and rehabilitation programmes included components for A/C.3/35/SR.44 English Page 15 (Mrs. Rajendra Kumari Bajpai, India) improving sanitation end environmental conditions, nutrition and health care. The Government provided for education through schools for the blind, the deaf-mute and other handicapped persons and special provision was made for employment of the disabled. At the same time, the labour laws provided that persons who had been disabled as a result of an employment accident must be paid the full salary which they had been receiving at the time of their disability for the rest of their lives. 65. With regard to the International Year of Disabled Persons, a National Committee had been set up under the chairmanship of the Union Minister of Education and Social Welfare to carry out preparations for the Year, as stated in document A/35/291. 66. The Committee had considered and approved the draft national plan of action, which focussed on developing services for the disabled child and on employment. Other programmes which would be structured around those two pivotal points would include disability prevention, vocational training and the establishment of a data base and information system. to make the public aware of the capacities of the disabled. 67. with regard to the international plan, as could be seen from the report of the Advisory Committee (A/35/444. Annex), contributions to the Trust Fund for the Year amounted so far to less than $1 million, and only eight countries had contributed to the Fund. That was clearly highly inadequate and her delegation hoped that more countries would soon come forth with support. 68. Turning to item 71, her delegation welcomed the convening of the world Assembly on the Elderly. The problems of the elderly mu6t be viewed in the context of the societies in which they lived and due attention must be paid to the social and economic structure of the respective societies. For most developing countries it might not be possible to guarantee economic and social security for the elderly at the current stage. In India, the family structure was such that the elderly continued to remain a part of the family system and were taken care of by the family. However, in order to provide for the elderly who did not have that security certain schemes has been initiated relating to old-age pensions and medical care for the elderly. 69. Her delegation attached great importance to the question of a convention on the rights of the child (agenda item 73), which was currently being drafted by the Commission on Human Rights. It had participated actively in the deliberations of the Commission on that question and hoped that the Commission would continue to give high priority to that work so that the convention could be completed as soon as possible. For those reasons, it had Joined the sponsors of draft resolution A/C.3/35/L.H*. 70. In conclusion, she expressed the hope that work on the drafting of an international convention on the elimination of all forms of religious intolerance could be speeded up. The" adoption of an international convention on that subject A/C.3/35/SR.44 English Page 16 (Mrs. Rajendra Kumari Bajpai, India) would strengthen international co-operation in ensuring freedom of religious belief and practice, 71. Mrs. DE RIVERA (Colombia) said that according to the Secretary-General's comprehensive report (A/35/130) the next two decade3 would see an increase in the number of the aging; that factor, together with lowered birth rates and rising life expectancy would push up the average age of the world's population. By the year 2000 there would be about twice as many people over 60 and over 80 years old as there had been in 1970. The rise in life expectancy was mainly the result of very large declines in mortality, particularly in the developing countries. Thus, in the year 2000 the average expectation of life at birth for the world would be 64.4, with 73.6 for the developed countries and 63 for the developing countries. The increasing expectation of longevity implied living into stages of life where, under changing world social, economic and value systems, there would be new and as yet unstructured social roles and identities. Longevity also had its implications for the structure of the family. The extension of the family into four and five generations had implications not only for family roles and responsibilities as related to the aging, but also for social policies in supporting the family to carry out some of its more traditional roles in relation to older family members. 72. National policies for the aging must be defined by each country within the framework of its ovn priorities and plans in accordance with its stage of development. The world community attached importance to the study of a number of subsidiary natters in connexion with the specific needs of the aging, such as health, housing and environment, social welfare, income security, education and the family. 73. With regard to demographic, humanitarian and developmental issues, the Secretary-General's report showed how social, economic, environmental and cultural factors all had an impact on the decline of the physical strength of the human person. Therefore, the knowledge and experience of the aging must be recognized as being human resources in the process of the economic and social development of peoples. 74. Colombian legislation and regulations governing social security and labour matters included the provision of assistance for the aging. There were channels for democratic participation by all strata of society, including trade-union organizations and associations protecting the interests of pensioners. There were also private cultural organizations and church groups promoting the welfare of that section of the population. 75. Her Government, through the Ministry of Labour, the National Social Security Fund, the Colombian Social Security Institute, departmental welfare offices, the Colombian Institute for Social Welfare, the Office of the President of the Republic and the social volunteer workers led by the First Lady were all involved in matters of social security. 76. Developing countries must be given support in designing legislation and regulations to extend and improve social security systems and offer possibilities A/C.3/35/SR.44 English Page 17 (Mrs. De Rivera. Colombia) of employment, whilst avoiding any policies or measures of discrimination on grounds of age. Member States must be persuaded to regard elderly persons and public and private sector pensioners as members of a team of consultants. 77. Mr. BENA (Romania) said that the documentation before the Committee contained a great deal of data and interpretative material for a realistic assessment of the degree to which Member States were fulfilling their obligations under the International Covenants on Human Rights. One essential factor was the need for a full analysis of the fundamental right of people and nations to life, peace, and a free and independent existence. The affirmation of dignity, and the exercise of the fundamental rights and freedoms of the human person were interdependent and mutually interactive. 78. Romania had submitted detailed reports on the observance of human rights in Romanian society. One basic concern of Romania's general policy was to safeguard the full development of the human person. That concern was concretely reflected in the improvement of the material and spiritual life of citizens, the full guarantee of the right to work, to education, to culture and to knowledge, and the effective democratic exercise, without any discrimination, of the right of all to participate in deciding the course of society. The best practical illustration of the historic achievements of the Romanian people in the matter of human rights was the abolition of the exploitation of man by man, the establishment of a superior materiel and spiritual civilization, the abolition of the old policy of discord among nationalities and the guarantee of full equality among all citizens, Romania opposed all racist, fascist, reactionary and chauvinist ideas designed to spread discord and mistrust among peoples. On several occasions it had made concrete proposals, for example calling on all States participating in the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe to undertake to prohibit in their territories any action directed against any other State, including in such prohibition the information media, thereby putting a stop to propaganda inciting to violence, Romania also supported the adoption of measures to combat trends harmful to the human personality, particularly that of the young, such as drugs, pornography and violence. 79. It was generally acknowledged that colonialism, neo-colonialism, occupation and foreign domination, the arms race, under-development, economic crises, unemployment and emigration had an adverse effect on human rights. Worse still, some elements were using specious arguments and invoking human rights to permit and even encourage the development, in the social and political arena, of certain fascist and neo-fascist forces that were a threat to the dignity of the human person. 80. The discussions in the Human Rights Committee and in the sessional working group of the Economic and Social Council must not be deflected to the marginal aspects of the human rights question. The same remark applied to the specialized agencies which, under the Covenants, made reports on the implementation of the provisions thereof. International co-operation in the field of human rights, as an integral part of general co-operation among States, must be based on the same principles and contribute to friendship among peoples. A/C.3/35/SR.44 English Page 18 (Mr. Bena, Romania) 81. With regard to the discussions in the Human Rights Committee concerning the so-called supplementary reports to be submitted by States, it should be emphasized that the International Covenant on civil and Political Right3 referred only to initial reports and reports expressly requested by the Committee (art. 40, Para. 1 (a) and (b)). Thus, States had no obligation to submit supplementary reports; to argue the contrary would be to impose on States new obligations beyond those specifically laid down in the Covenant. 82. It was to be hoped that the observations of States on the work of the Haman Rights Committee and the sessional working group of the Economic and Social Council would be given thorough consideration by those bodies and that the best solution would be found, so that their sessions could be conducted in accordance with their mandates. As in previous years, his delegation attached great importance to the draft resolutions on the International Covenants on Human Rights. 83. Mr. OUSMANE (Central African Republic) noted with satisfaction that the international community attached particular importance to the question of young people and that the General Assembly had adopted resolution 32/135 with the object of improving the channels of communication between the United Nations and youth organizations. In designating 1985 as International Youth Year, the General Assembly had aimed at giving youth an opportunity to make a direct contribution to the shaping of the future of humanity and to participate in the establishment of a new international economic order. 84. A year earlier, the young people of the Central African Republic had been victimized under the regime of the bloody dictator Bokassa. Amnesty International had revealed that hundreds of young people had been murdered following the students' strikes. The Government was very anxious to understand better the problems and aspirations of the young. It was reorganizing the educational system so as to orient it towards the productive sector, and was providing subsidies for most of the youth associations. 85. In order to prevent a rural-urban exodus, a High Commission for Youth had been set up to bring together unemployed young people of both sexes in centres for agricultural and pastoral education. The Central African Republic was basically an agricultural country; it was felt that getting young people interested in agriculture would help to solve the country's supply problems. The Government was also promoting the establishment and modernization of small and medium-sized enterprises to give employment to young people; moreover, to promote contacts among young people, the Government was organizing sporting and cultural events. All those measures were designed to contribute to the success of the International Youth Year in 1985. 86. Mr. ENRAZURIZ (Chile) recalled that His Holiness Pope John Paul II, in the statement he had made during his visit to the United Nations, had said that the progress of humanity must be measured not only by the progress of moral life. In that connexion, article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights referred to freedom of thought, conscience and religion, which, in his delegation's view, were A/C.3/35/SR.44 English Page 19 (Mr. Errazuriz, Chile) not respected in many parts of the world where there had recently been instances of intolerance towards other beliefs, persecution on grounds of religion, attacks on places of worship, and the like. 87. Some modern State3 declared themselves atheist but, paradoxically, did not permit any other option, which meant that atheists actually became the State religion. In other instances, there were countries that did not permit the practice of religions other than the official religion. Both approaches were wrong in that they dispensed with rationality, a basic attribute of mankind. 88. His delegation considered violations of article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as being particularly serious; they were en outrage against the spiritual side of man and constituted the supreme violation of human rights because a life devoid of spiritual elements made man nothing more than an object. 89. Article 18 was not sufficient to safeguard the existence of, and respect for, the values 3et forth therein. It was necessary to supplement the provisions with specific references to religious intolerance and with a description of negative attitudes likely to prompt an effective international response. The Commission on Human Rights should give priority to consideration of the draft declaration on the elimination of all forms of intolerance and discrimination based on religion or belief, which should be adopted by consensus by the General Assembly at its thirty-si.xth session. 90. Mr. SKOTNIKOV (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) said that in his country scientific and technological progress was used to raise the standard of living and to create more favorable conditions for the full development of the human person. Rather than prejudicing employment in his country, the results of scientific and technological progress created further opportunities for full development of the workers' creative potential. 91. However, scientific and technological progress was not always used for the benefit of mankind. There were countries where its achievements were used to perpetrate further violations of human rights and, in particular, to create a system of surveillance and interference in the private lives of men and women; for example, such illegal practices were widespread in the United Kingdom. The Government of the United Kingdom had itself acknowledged the existence of such shameful practices. Moreover, the capitalist monopolies were using technological advances to maximize their profits, thus causing a constant increase in the ranks of the unemployed. 92. The most telling example of the misuse of scientific and technological progress was the continuing arms race, particularly the nuclear arms race, which increased the danger of a nuclear catastrophe and violated the most important human right, the right to life. His country's policy of halting the arms race was reflected in a number of constructive proposals submitted, in particular, at the United Nations, which frequently met with determined resistance from certain forces. One of two examples of such resistance to his country's policy of peace was provided by the problems that had arisen with regard to ratification by the United States of the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT II). A/C.3/35/SR.44 English Page 20 (Mr. Skotnikov, USSR) 93. Militarist policies found expression in the so-called "new nuclear strategy" announced by the United States. The development of new types and systems of weapons of mass destruction was also a threat to world peace. Further measures should be taken to ensure implementation of his country's proposal concerning an agreement on the prohibition of development of new weapons of mass destruction and new systems of such weapons. 94. The problem of human rights and scientific and technological progress was taking on increasing importance. An important milestone in the effort to deal with that problem had been the adoption by the General Assembly in 1975 of the Declaration on the Use of Scientific and Technological Progress in the Interests of Peace and for the Benefit of Mankind. That Declaration proclaimed that all States should refrain from any acts involving the use of scientific and technological achievements for the purposes of violating the sovereignty and territorial integrity of other States, interfering in their internal affairs, suppressing national liberation movements or pursuing a policy of racial discrimination, and the results of scientific and technological developments should be used in the interests of strengthening international peace and security, freedom and independence. 95. His country was fully implementing the provisions of that Declaration; it was devoting great efforts to economic, scientific and technological co-operation with developing countries in the following areas: development of a scientific and technological infrastructure; training of skilled national personnel; co-operation in the preparation of national plans and socio-economic development programmes; and strengthening of the public sector in the interest of the majority of the population of the developing countries. The projects in which his country participated were the property of the developing countries and all the profits derived there from could be used to improve living standards among the population. 96. Hi3 delegation regarded as unacceptable the attempts to use the question of human rights and scientific and technological progress to raise artificial problems that had absolutely nothing to do with scientific and technological progress and its implications. The General Assembly should continue to devote attention to the question of implementation of the Declaration on the Use of Scientific and Technological Progress in the Interests of Peace and for the Benefit of Mankind in order to ensure that its provisions were put into effect. 97. His delegation wished to draw the attention of the relevant departments of the Secretariat to the fact that statements made by representatives in the Committee were being distorted in the press releases; in particular, press release No. 2371 of 3 November 1960 distorted a statement made by the Soviet representative, and the Secretariat should take appropriate measures. 98. With regard to the statement made by the representative the United Kingdom, Ida delegation vigorously rejected the provocative attacks directed against the Soviet Union. Instead of slandering the Soviet system, the United Kingdom delegation should give the Committee an account of how new methods of psychological pressure were being tried out on prisoners in the United Kingdom and how, in A/C.3/35/SR.44 English Page 21 (Mr. Skotnikov, USSR) psychiatric hospitals, patients were being subjected by force to treatment with electric shocks, anesthetics and tranquillizers. Those were vivid illustrations of the human rights situation in the United Kingdom. 99. Mrs. CASTILLO (Dominican Republic), referring to the report of the Secretary-General on policies and programmes relating to youth and channels of communication between the United Nations and youth organizations pursuant to General Assembly resolution 34/163, said that the channels of communication with young people should be improved; it might be more effective to establish national liaison and co-ordination centres for the activities in question; it would be advisable to strengthen contacts among youth organizations, provide more exchange and training Programmes, as well as practical seminars and courses at the local, national, regional and international levels for the young people of various countries, and expand the United Nations advisory services to Member States in that field. It would also be a good idea to expand the Youth Information Bulletin. 100. Some of the young people in her country were involved, on a voluntary basis, without remuneration and in some instances with assistance from the Department of Education or the Community Development Office, in giving neighborhood adult literacy classes and in teaching manual skills. Young people in her country took part in political activities from the age of 14 and stayed away from the degrading vices of drug addiction and delinquency. In that connexion, her delegation supported the remarks and recommendations made by the Secretary-General in his report (A/35/503) and would vote in favour of draft resolution A/C.3/35/L.26, in the hope that the 24 members of the Advisory Committee for the International Youth Year would be appointed. 101. As for the item on the problems of the elderly and the aged, it should be pointed out that, by the end of the present century, the world's population would increase by 73 per cent and that, during the same period, the number of persons over 60 would increase by 90 per cent. On the continent of Latin America, the figures would be highly significant, as could be seen from the following statistics: the total population of Latin America in 1970 was 283 million, while in the year 2000 it would be 620 million, an increase of 113 per cent. The number of persons over 60 would increase by 152 per cent and the number of persons over 80 by 215 per cent, the latter proportion being the highest in all areas of the world. The Dominican Republic had followed very closely the implementation of General Assembly resolution 33/52 which approved the convening of a World Assembly on the Elderly in 1982. She hoped that that Assembly would encourage the study of the phenomena of aging and the problems involved in it. 102. With regard to the item on the disabled, the Dominican Republic was preparing to celebrate the International Year of Disabled Persons in 1981 and commended the extensive work which had been done on that subject by the secretariat of the International Year of Disabled Persons and the Department of Public Information. 103. With regard to item 73, her delegation was in favour of the drafting of a convention on the rights of the child and would vote in favour of draft resolution A/C.3/35/L.14. Without properly educated and healthy children, the future of the A/C.3/35 /SR.44 English Page 22 (Mrs. Castillo. Dominican Republic) developing countries would be more and more difficult. In the national District alone there were some 2,000 children suffering from poliomyelitis. Of the children attending medical centres 75 per cent were suffering from malnutrition to a marked decree. They named health care, education, housing, clothing, food, a satisfactory environment and ********. In the Dominican Republic there were more than a million ******** children and efforts were being made to build more schools and reception centres in an effort to remedy that deplorable situation. 104. The legal system of the Dominican Republic provided for freedom of religion and **** there was so persecution, discrimination or any form of religious intolerance. The Ecumenical Republic was a multiracial nation which believed in ideological pluralism, the inalienable rights of all human being3 to life and self-determination, freedom of expression and thought, and freedom of movement, affiliation and assembly. The Dominican Republic had acceded to the International Covenants on Human Rights and hoped that General Assembly resolution 34/45 of 23 November 1979 would be implemented. 105. Mrs. SANGARE (Guinea) said that the participation of youth in development and in the search for peace presupposed above all a rational organization which would involve them in the exercise of those responsibilities. Thus, in Guinea, from primary school to university, there was a Governing Board which deliberated on all questions which concerned the activities and the life of the establishment. That system initiated young students in the management of their own affairs. Outside school, at the local level, young people from the age of seven onwards arranged their own cultural and artistic activities. From the age of 15 they belonged to the Youth Organization of the African Democratic Revolution of the district, in the urban centres, or of the village in the rural areas. The young people of Guinea did not maintain direct relations with multinational organizations but their contacts were made through the Pan-African Youth Movement. Her delegation would therefore like that Movement to play an active part in the elaboration of youth programmes and policies and in the activities of the International Year. In that respect. it supported the additional measures suggested by the Secretary-General in his report (A/35/503) and was glad to note that it had been possible to establish the Advisory Committee of the International Youth Year. 106. With regard to the International Year of Disabled Persons, Guinea had already set up a National Committee and had built a city of solidarity in which the disabled enjoyed the basic services provided by the authorities. Within that framework, her delegation Liked for continuing efforts from the donor countries, and from ILO, WHO and UNESCO for the establishment of regional institutes or an international institute for the rehabilitation of the disabled in the developing countries. 107. With regard to human Rights and scientific and technological developments 'item 72), she stressed that today more than ever technology played a decisive role in the life of nations and societies, both in satisfying needs and strengthening the domination of some groups over others. The international community was rightly concerned about the increasingly negative role which certain circles assigned to science and technology to the detriment of the benefits to which mankind aspired. A/C.3/35/SR.44 English Page 23 (Mrs. Sangare, Guinea) 108. Finally, with regard to the International Covenants on Human Rights, she pointed out that, in spite of numerous appeals by the General Assembly, many Member States were still reluctant to accede to them. Her delegation also regretted that in the elections held on 12 September 1960 in the Committee on Human Rights all the African candidates had been eliminated and the principle of equitable geographical distribution had been ignored, 109. Mr. EDIS (United Kingdom), speaking in the exercise of his right of reply, said that the Soviet Union, instead of replying to the assertions made by the United Kingdom concerning political dissidents imprisoned in institutions for the mentally sick, had resorted to insults. The difference between the two countries was that in the United Kingdom it was possible to see what was going on. Moreover, the radio, the press and television in the United Kingdom were free, there were courts to which anyone could have recourse, and there was the right of appeal. The United Kingdom was not engaging in unjustified attacks and fabrications, but was presenting proof provided by impartial intergovernmental organizations, one of them recognized as a consultative organization. According to the information supplied, during the last four years, more than a hundred USSR citizens had been confined to psychiatric establishments for having exercised their human rights in a way which was not acceptable to the Soviet authorities; for example, they had submitted complaints against the Government, had belonged to groups not officially recognized, had engaged in religious practices, and so on. In many cases, confinement in such institutions took place after the authorities had tried other methods of dissuasion. In none of the cases had the friends or relatives of the detained persons considered them to be mentally sick and, in some cases, when they had been able to travel abroad and had been examined by impartial psychiatrists, it had been confirmed that the confinement could not have been Justified from the medical point of view. The United Kingdom had quoted specific cases and the USSR should give specific replies and not answer with insult3. 110, Mr. BYKOV (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) said that the United Kingdom had shown once again that its aim was to slander the USSR and for that reason the United Kingdom statement must be repudiated. With regard to the organization mentioned by the United Kingdom representative, everyone knew what it was like and the reason why it had been commended. For 3ome time now, in the meetings of the Economic and Social Council, the slanderous attitude of that organization had been mentioned and its consultative status was in contravention of the norms of Economic and Social Council resolution 1296 (XLIV) according to which those organizations which systematically participated in acts against Member States should be deprived of their consultative status. The Soviet Union was well aware of the way in which such slanderous information was fabricated and that the sole aim was to misrepresent the real situation in the Soviet Union and that country's policy. 111. He reserved the right to reply at greater length on another occasion. The meeting rose at 6.45 p.m.