UVA Law Logo Mobile

UN Human Rights Treaties

Travaux Préparatoires


Summary record of the 53rd meeting, 3rd Committee, held on Monday, 28 November 1983, New York.

UN Document Symbol A/C.3/38/SR.53
Convention Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)
Document Type Summary Record
Session 38th
Type Document

16 p.

Subjects Religious Intolerance, Religious Freedom, Rights of The Child, Science and Technology, Women's Status, Women's Advancement, Gender Discrimination, Women in Development

Extracted Text

United Nations GENERAL ASSEMBLY THIRTY-EIGHTH SESSION Official Records* THIRD COMMITTEE 53rd meeting held on Monday, 28 November 1983 at 3 p.m. New York SUMMARY RECORD OP THE 53rd MEETING Chairman: Mr. CHAVANAVIRAJ (Thailand) CONTENTS AGENDA ITEM 93: ELIMINATION Of ALL FORMS OP RELIGIOUS INTOLERANCE (continued) AGENDA ITEM 94: HUMAN RIGHTS AND SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS (continued) AGENDA ITEM 95: QUESTION OF A CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OP THE CHILD (continued) AGENDA ITEM 96: INTERNATIONAL COVENANTS ON HUMAN RIGHTS (continued) (a) REPORT OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS COMMITTEE (continued) (b) STATUS OF THE INTERNATIONAL COVENANT ON ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL RIGHTS, THE INTERNATIONAL COVENANT ON CIVIL AND POLITICAL RIGHTS AND THE OPTIONAL PROTOCOL TO THE INTERNATIONAL COVENANT ON CIVIL AND POLITICAL RIGHTS: REPORT OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL (continued) AGENDA ITEM 97: TORTURE AND OTHER CRUEL, INHUMAN OR DEGRADING TREATMENT OR PUNISHMENT (continued) AGENDA ITEM 91s UNITED NATIONS DECADE FOR WOMEN: EQUALITY, DEVELOPMENT AND PEACE (continued) (a) IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAMME OF ACTION FOR THE SECOND HALF OF THE UNITED NATIONS DECADE FOR WOMEN: REPORTS OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL (continued) (b) PREPARATIONS FOR THE WORLD CONFERENCE TO REVIEW AND APPRAISE THE ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE UNITED NATIONS DECADE FOR WOMEN (continued) (C) INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH AND TRAINING INSTITUTE FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OP WOMEN: REPORT OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL Continued) A/C.3/38/SR.53 English Page 2 CONTENTS (continued) (d) VOLUNTARY FUND FOR THE UNITED NATIONS DECADE FOR WOMEN; REPORT OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL (continued) AGENDA ITEM 92, ELIMINATION OF ALL FORMS OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN (continued) (a) REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE ELIMINATION OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN (continued) (b) STATUS OF THE CONVENTION ON THE ELIMINATION OF ALL FORMS OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN* RETORT OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL (continued) A/C.3/38/SR.53 English Page 3 The meeting was called to order at 3.20 p.m. AGENDA ITS! 93: ELIMINATION OP ALL FORMS OP RELIGIOUS INTOLERANCE (continued) (A/38/3 (part I) $ A/C.3/38/8, A/C. 3/38/L. 30) AGENDA ITEM 9 HUMAN RIGHTS AND SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS (continued) (A/38/3 (part I), A/38/195, A/38/325; A/C.3/38/L.29, L.38, L.40) AGENDA ITEM 95* QUESTION OF A CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD (continued) (A/38/3 (part I) ; A/C.3/38A. 23) AGENDA ITEM 96t INTERNATIONAL COVENANTS ON HUMAN RIGHTS (continued) (A/38/3 (part I); A/38/40, A/38/88, A/38/203, A/38/392, A/38/529; A/C.3/38/L.35, L.39, L.41) (a) REPORT OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS COMMITTEE (continued) (b) STATUS OF THE INTERNATIONAL COVENANT ON ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL RIGHTS, THE INTERNATIONAL COVENANT ON CIVIL AND POLITICAL RIGHTS AND THE OPTIONAL PHOTOCOL TO THE INTERNATIONAL COVENANT ON CIVIL AND POLITICAL RIGHTS* REPORT OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL (continued) AGENDA ITEM 97* TORTURE AND OTHER CRUEL, INHUMAN OR DEGRADING TREATMENT OR PUNISHMENT (continued) (A/38/3 (part I), A/C. 3/38/L- 31, L. 32) 1. Mr. NGUYEN LUONG (Viet Nan) , speaking on item 94, said that scientific and technological developments had become one of the most important factors in developing human society, improving living conditions, speeding up economic, social and cultural progress and ensuring the exercise of human rights, including the right to live and develop in peace. For the developing countries, it also increased the possibilities of overcoming the legacies of the colonial era, in particular hunger, disease and poverty. Those truths were in essence embodied in the Declaration on the Use of Scientific and Technological Progress in the Interest of Peace and for the Benefit of Mankind adopted by the General Assembly in resolution 3384 (XXX). Unfortunately, however, scientific and technological progress had been used to produce increasingly sophisticated weapons of destruction which threatened the existence of human life and to bolster nee-colonialism's hold on the developing countries. The imperialist forces were using it to deny human beings the basic human right of existence. Existing stocks of nuclear weapons were more than enough to annihilate the human race many times over, and the irresponsible aggressive doctrines of "preventive nuclear attack", "limited nuclear war", "prolonged nuclear conflict", victory through "first strike", and so forth were direct threats to collective and individual life. There could be no victor in a nuclear war' only general catastrophe. Yet United States imperialism was trying to create a psychological climate receptive to the possibility and admissibility of a nuclear war and the intensification and extension of the arms race into space, coupled with the deployment of medium-range nuclear missiles in Western Europe, thus sabotaging the efforts to promote dialogue and negotiation on international peace and security. A/C.3/38/SR.53 English Page 4 (Mr. Nguyen Leong, Viet Nam) 2. The immediate task for all peoples and individuals was to fight for international peace and security, a halt to the arms race, and general and complete disarmament. His delegation welcomed the unprecedented growth of the movement for peace and against nuclear disaster, which was spreading throughout the world and constituted a categorical rejection of the use of scientific and technological progress against the right to live and develop in peace. He reaffirmed Viet Nam's support for the constructive and untiring efforts of the Soviet Union* the socialist countries and the Non-Aligned Movement to stop the arms race, abolish the thre at of a nuclear holocaust and use the resources released by general and complete disarmament, together with scientific and technological development, for peaceful purposes. 3. Since the Second World War, the imperialist, colonialist, expansionist and hegemonies Powers had been using science and technology to pursue their policies of aggression and domination against independent States, national liberation movements and democratic forces opposing Fascist dictatorships that were promoted, supported and financed by the major imperialist Power, in Asia, Africa, the Middle fast, the Caribbean and Latin America, using then as testing grounds for new weapons and new meant of repression and torture. The most barbaric example had been the war against Viet Nam. in which United States imperialism had used the people and the land for experiments to the point of genocide, biocide and ecocide. More than 10 million tons of bombs and shells had been dropped on the country. destroying economic, civilian and residential installations, and napalm, phosphorous and fragmentation bombs had caused unspeakable suffering. Chemical warfare. involving 100,000 tons of toxic chemicals including dioxin, had caused 2 million deaths* contaminated the environment. devastated the flora and fauna of vast areas, and caused genetic contamination of Vietnamese and United States soldiers and their offspring and ecological destruction. It would take generations to recover from the effects of that use of chemical warfare* which had been described in the conclusions of an international symposium held at Ho Chi Minh City in January 1983, attended by over ISO scientists and experts from 21 countries. including the United states, and observers from FAO, UNEP and UNESCO. Yet the same imperialist forces were using scientific and technological developments against the right to live and the right to self-determination of the black majority in South Africa and the peoples of Namibia* Palestine and other Arab countries through the United States' strategic alliances with the regimes of apartheid and Zionism. Other examples of the use of scientific and technological development against human rights, on the pretext of defending them, were assistance to Latin American dictatorships known for their brutal repression of democratic support for human rights, the aggression against the small independent and sovereign State of Grenada and the intimidation and pressure exercised against the Republic of Nicaragua. 4. Scientific and technological developments could and should be used to counter the persistent effects of underdevelopment and speed up the use o2 national material and human resources for the gradual betterment of living conditions and social justice. In a world of economic interdependence the transfer of scientific and technological advances and the restructuring of international economic relations on a just basis were closely linked. States should all ensure that scientific and technological advances were used to meet the material and cultural needs of all classes of the population, in particular the moat deprived. The successes of the A/C.3/38/SR.53 English Page 5 (Mr. Nguyen Luong, Viet Nam) socialist countries and many newly independent countries in using science and technology for economic development without human exploitation set an example. For the developing countries the acquisition and judicious use of science and technology were essential for building a viable infrastructure for economic and social development and training people to control their society. 5. Unfortunately, the transfer of technology provided for under the Declaration on the Establishment; of a New International Economic Order was inadequate, and technology was being used by transnational corporations to impose neo-colonialism. The use of scientific and technological developments for capitalism and foreign exploitation was detrimental to human rights both in the developing countries, which suffered when economic relations were based on exploitation, oppression, dependence and inequality, and in the developed countries, where the use of science and technology to promote the arms race end satisfy capitalist greed subjected the working classes to harmful working conditions, unemployment, low pay, poverty and inadequate training. In one Country which bad made spectacular advances. In science and technology, unemployment continued to increase, particularly among the black population. The contribution of scientific and technological developments to human rights, as defined in the Declaration, would never materialize until science and technology ceased to be appropriated and misused by capitalism and neo-colonialism. 6. With regard to item 95, his delegation believed that every effort should be made to ensure that the draft convention on the rights of the child was adopted by the General Assembly at its thirty-ninth session a a tangible contribution to the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Declaration of the nights of the Child. Enjoyment of children's rights depended on the efforts of the present generation to preserve International peace and security, the establishment of a new international economic order. the promotion of speedy economic and social development for the developing countries, especially the least developed, and the participation by all in creating a climate conducive to the full development of children. The United Nations had a moral obligation to concern itself with the right of children to live and be educated In a climate of peace. His delegation commended UNICEF on its activities in that connection. 7. In Viet Nam maternal and child welfare was the responsibility of society as a whole and the State. The law on the protection and education of children, promulgated on 21 November 19 79, provided for the care and support of children by the family, the State and society, free health and medical care and, basic education as a child's right and a duty, respect for the human dignity of children and prohibition of child abuse. Children had their own pioneer organization under the Union of Youth, and measures for their protection were co-ordinated by the National Children's Committee, which was composed of ministerial representatives under the chairmanship of the Vice-President of the Council of State and the President of the National Assembly. Government policy was designed to give children the best possible opportunities and to educate them to govern their country and to respect the ideas of peace, progress and friendship among peoples. A/C.3/38/SR.53 English Page 6 (Mr. Nguyen Luong, Viet Nam) 6. in view of the United States representative's distortion of facts at a recent meeting of the Committee, he wished to set the record right concerning religion. Freedom of religion was enshrined in the Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam. All citizens had the right to observe the religion of their choice or not to observe any religion. Abuse of religion was a violation of State law and policy under article 68 of the Constitution. The vast majority of the followers of the various religions in Viet Nan performed their civic duties as citizens. Since the foundation of the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam Catholic bishops, Buddhist priests and high dignitaries of other religions had taken an active part in the affairs of the State, the National Assembly and the Patriotic Front. The reunification of Viet Nam had been followed by the unification of religious bodies. Normal relations were maintained between the Catholic Church of Viet Nan and the Vatican, and Vietnamese bishops had been made cardinals. Buddhism, although not the State religion, was active and Buddhist high priests from Viet Nam had taken part in Buddhist peace meetings in Tokyo. New Delhi and elsewhere. 9. Ngo Dinh Diem, cited by the United States representative in his acrimonious attempt to distort the facts, had been as everyone knew, a seminarist trained in the United States and sent to South Viet Nam in 1954 in monk's habit to set up the so-called Republic of Viet Nam, which had been a creation of the United States. with American help, and making the extraordinary claim that the Virgin Mary had gone to the South, he had engineered the departure of nearly 1 million Catholics from North Viet Nam to the south, where they had constituted the core of his support when he, as a protege of Archbishop Spellman, was set up as a puppet president. Ngo Dinh Dlem's bloody repression of Buddhist and other religious sects had been carried out with United States assistance, but what the United States representative had deliberately omitted was the fact that his country had subsequently arranged the liquidation of Ngo Dinh Diem when he became an embarrassment. The other people named by the United States representative had been criminals who, under cover of religious activities, had carried out acts of subversion and espionage for foreign agencies, including the CIA. They had been duly tried and sentenced. The acrimony of the United states representative was understandable* the Vietnamese security services had struck at the right moment and dismantled the CIA network. The person mentioned by the United States representative, who had been returned to his native village, had been a recidivist who had been sent back to give him an opportunity to start a new life. 10. Viet Nam respected the freedom of all religions but, as in every country, maintenance of national security and public order was the sovereign responsibility of its Government and a civic obligation of every citizen. His country resolutely opposed the invocation of human rights and religious freedom as a pretext for intervention in internal affairs which, under international law, were within the sovereign competence of States. 11. In response to the Netherlands representative, who had spoken of freedom of religion in Viet Nam, he said there were many religions and beliefs in Viet Nam and their development was linked with the people's struggle for unity and the preservation of their national Independence and Identity. For centuries Viet Nan had been carrying on a ceaseless struggle against oppression, and the religions had A/C.3/38/SR.53 English Page 7 (Mr. Nguyen Luong Viet Nam) made an active contribution to the national cause. On the other hand, there were people who had abandoned their religion* and beliefs and who were actively hostile to the nation and the social order. His delegation was ready to give detailed information on the history of religion in Viet Has to the Netherlands or any other delegations so that they would have a better understanding of freedom of religion in Viet Ham. It believed that in such important matters objectivity, seriouaness and good faith should prevail 12. Mr. ARCILLA (Philippines) said that his delegation had noted the concerns voiced earlier in the Committee about the difficulties encountered by certain States parties in submitting reports, owing to their lack of resources and the proliferation of reporting procedures under the various human rights Instruments and groups* Practical solutions should be devised, including closer co-ordination among the United Nations bodies concerned and assistance to certain Member States. His delegation noted in particular the difficulties and deficiencies identified during the fifth session of the Sessional Working Group of Governmental Experts on the Implementation of the International Covenant on Economic. Social and Cultural Rights, such of which might be ascribed to the fact that many States parties had yet to prepare initial reports. His delegation endorsed the request to the Working Group to prepare brief summaries of the consideration of each country report. The more serious difficulty of the Working Group was the failure to complete its membership owing to a lack of candidates from two regions. Some kind of incentive needed to be given so that qualified experts of high calibre could be elected. 13. Referring to item 95, he said that the Philippines placed very high priority on positive social action directed specifically toward children, and had sustained the activities related to the International Year of the Child as a permanent feature of its efforts to promote the well-being of that large segment of its population. His delegation therefore urged the Commission on Human Rights to give the highest priority at its fortieth session to the question of completing the draft convention. 14. Speaking on item 93, he said that his delegation subscribed to the Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or belief as a further contribution to the realization of the basic right to freedom of worship. As a pluralistic society, the Philippines had taken special measures to protect the right to worship by establishing a clear separation between Church and State. It shared the concern that religious intolerance had come to be associated with certain political issues that threatened fundamental human rights in some parts of the world, and it therefore endorsed the renewed international commitment to eliminate all forms of Intolerance based on religion or belief. 15. With reference to item 94, he said human rights and scientific and technological developments should acquire far greater importance in the work of the United Nations, Development had, of course, been greatly advanced by the sustained application of science and technology to the processes of production, distribution and communication. At the same time, the development of science and technology had certain adverse consequences for human affairs that constituted serious threats to human rights, such as the threat to life itself through nuclear annihilation, A/C.3/38/SR.53 English Page 8 (Mr. Arcilla, Philippine) threats to the right to development of inhabitants of developing countries, and threats to the basic right to privacy of personal data through unregulated trans-border data flows. There was a need to examine on a priority basic the threat to the right to privacy, and his delegation hoped to initiate action on the subject during the forthcoming sessions of the Commission on Human Rights. It was the Third Committee which was mainly responsible for devising specific protective measures to safeguard fundamental human rights and it was therefore its responsibility to avoid further procrastination. 16. Ms. ABBAS (Indonesia), referring to item 93, said that the adoption by the General Assembly of resolution 36/55 proclaiming the Declaration on the Elimination of All Proms of Intolerance and of Discrimination based on Religion or Belief was an important achievement which would further implement one of the basic principles of the Charter, namely the dignity and equality of all human beings. The Declaration should also be used as a solid foundation for the promotion of understanding, tolerance and respect in matters relating to freedom of thought. She looked forward to the forthcoming seminar, recommended by the Economic and Social Council, which would serve as an important channel for Implementing the ideas and principles set forth in the Declaration. 17. Her Government's policy on religion was designed to develop a harmonious relationship between the various religious groups, through tolerance based on mutual respect for the rights and teachings of all religions and beliefs. The Government recognized that coercion or persuasion in any form would impair freedom of religion and belief, and efforts to promote harmony and peace among the different groups had been made through dialogue between their leaders, the development of codes of ethics and the alleviation of social problems by joint effort. Aid was granted for the development of religious institutions to foster a harmonious and orderly atmosphere in religious life. 18. Regarding item 95, she hoped that the draft convention on the rights of the child would be ready for adoption during the twenty-fifth anniversary year of the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, and that once the convention had been adopted favorable conditions would be created for its implementation. Such Implementation could be effective only when economic and social development, particularly in the developing countries, reached a certain level. While recognizing the important role played by UNICEF and other bodies in the United Nations system, her delegation urged the industrialized countries to demonstrate their political will by expanding their economic co-operation with developing countries in order to achieve their common objectives. The rights of the child were protected in the Indonesian National Development Programme through a multispectral approach, with special emphasis on education and health, which were vital factors in social and economic development. Despite achievements in the promotion and protection of the rights of the child, much remained to be done. 19. In connection with item 94, they said that scientific and technological progress had been widely recognized as one of the Important factors contributing to economic development, unfortunately, eight years after the adoption of the A/C.3/38/BR.53 English Page 9 (Mr. Abbas, Indonesia) Declaration on the Use of Scientific and Technological Progress in the Interests of Peace and for the Benefit of Mankind new invention and advanced technologies were being used to accelerate the arms race and develop inhuman weapons of mass destruction. All efforts should be concentrated on implementing the Declaration with a view to strengthening international peace and security and contributing to economic and social development and the promotion of international co-operation in the field of human rights. It should constantly be borne in mind, as stated in General Assembly resolution 37/189, that the exchange and transfer of scientific and technological knowledge was one of the more important ways of accelerating the social and economic development of the developing countries. 20. Mr. DERESSA (Ethiopia) said that the Centre for Human Rights was in effect the custodian, within the United Nations system, of common endeavours aimed at promoting respect for human rights throughout the world. It was therefore an important institutional mechanism that could enhance the role of the United Nations as a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in the attainment of the goals set by the Charter. it was that very purpose that would be jeopardized if extreme care was not taken to avoid a partisan or selective approach to human rights questions. He stressed that point because there was an increasing tendency to try to transform the Centre into one more field of confrontation. Some were unfortunately bent on using human rights issues and the institutional machinery of the United Nations as instruments of coercion to suit their own purpose. Chat negative tendency must be discouraged if the United Nations was to succeed in the discharge of its paramount responsibilities. The Charter spoke of "encouragement" rather than of coercive propaganda. of "harmonization" rather than Imposition on others of one's own values, of "co-operation" rather than confrontation. The wording of the Charter was not accidental but was the result of a deliberate choice intended to inspire international understanding and co-operation. 21. The approach taken by those who continued to engage in smear campaigns against countries that had chosen a path of development and a social and economic system that was different from theirs was therefore not only futile but also contrary to the spirit and letter of the Charter. Their indifference to the principle of the sovereign equality of nations was at the root of their high-handed approach to the issue of human rights and was the cause of ever—increasing tansiona in the contemporary world. The main problem in considering human rights issues in the United Nations system lay in the self-righteous attitude of those who refused to accept the differences of values among peoples. 22. Since man was the centre of everything on the planet, the ultimate objective of all activities must be the promotion of man's individual and collective well-being. It was in that context that scientific and technological developments were related to human rights. The results of activities in those fields provide for the future if properly used in the interest of peace and for the benefit of mankind. On the other hand, progress in science and technology, especially as applied to armaments, continued to be a source of great danger that threatened the very existence of civilization and man's right to life, apart from the danger of total annihilation of life on earth, the nuclear arms race represented a senseless squandering of human and material resources which could be used to solve the A/C.3/38/SR.53 English Page 10 (Mr. Deressa, Ethiopia) enormous social and economic problems facing the vast majority of the world's Inhabitants. Greater efforts must therefore be made to secure the implementation of the Declaration contained in General Assembly resolution 3384 (XXX). That Declaration had reiterated the need to refrain from using the achievements of science and technology to violate the sovereignty and territorial integrity of other States, to interfere in their internal affairs or to suppress national liberation movements. The transfer of technology to developing countries, the prohibition of war propaganda and the exclusive use of science and technology in the interest of peace and for promoting human rights should therefore continue to be the main focus of activities in that area. 23. Referring to item 93, on the elimination of all forms of religious intolerance, he said that intolerance not only was a violation of human rights but also destroyed human society and civilizations. Moreover, religious intolerance was a threat to stability, peace and social progress. Not only as a party to the consensus but also as a participant in the discussions and negotiations leading up to the adoption in 1981 of the Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief, Ethiopia attached the utmost importance to the Declaration, as a means both of encouraging respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms and of contributing to the preservation of international peace and security. 24. Ethiopia was a country inhabited by over 100 ethnic groups embracing such faiths as animism, Judaism, Christianity and Islam. (One significant achievement of the Ethiopian revolution had been the creation of an environment conducive to the observance of the different faiths. Church and State had been separated, thus bringing an end to the domination of one religion over the others and the Intermingling of Church and State affairs. The holy days of the two major religions - Christianity and Islam - were observed officially all over the country, and religious institutions continued to conduct their religious affairs on the basis of quality and in accordance with the laws of the land. Religious tolerance, deeply ingrained as it was in the country's history, was a fact of daily life and reality in socialist Ethiopia. 25. As the realistic knowledge of conditions in every country was an essential element In the promotion of greater understanding at an International level and the encouragement of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and as country reports were an effective means of disseminating such knowledge, Ethiopia supported the call made for their timely preparation and submission. 26. His delegation was pleased with the growing attention being given to the text of the draft convention on the rights of the child. The importance attached to the question of the rights of the child in Ethiopia was indicated by the establishment two years previously of a national children's commission entrusted with the task of teaching parents about the upbringing of children, their needs, and their preparation for adulthood, as the inheritors of and participants In the society of the future. A/C.3/38/SR.53 English Page 11 27. Mr. PHEDONOS-VADET (Cyprus) said that although article 18 of his country's Constitution guaranteed respect for religion, religious intolerance had been introduced into Cyprus by the Turkish aggressors as an official policy in the territories under their illegal occupation- In the occupied area there were some 200 churches and 11 monasteries which neither the appropriate bishops nor the Antiquities Department of the Republic of Cyprus could control, restore or utilize because of the so-called "peace operation" launched by Turkey against Cyprus in 19 74. In the areas under Turkish military occupation, church *** a general rule been completely looted by Turks. In many cases icons a to the sacred objects were being deliberately destroyed by them in an effort to *** totally the Greek and Christian character of the conquered land. In others, icons, early Christian manuscripts and consecrated vessels were being sold by the aggressors to persons through whom they found their way to well-known auction galleries in European and American cities where supposedly civilized persons bought them, thereby encouraging the looters. The fate of churches in the occupied part of Cyprus varied. In some exceptional cases, they were still allowed to function as places of Christian worship, but other churches were continually being desecrated and plundered in varying ways and degrees. Some had been turned into shelters for livestock, others had been demolished or burned, some had been converted into mosques and others into cinemas and recreational centers. Unfortunately, the lists of the desecrated Greek Orthodox churches in Cyprus ware incomplete because information and proof were difficult to obtain from the territories under Turkey's military occupation. Nevertheless, his delegation was in a position to submit to the Committee some descriptive lists the proven desecrations of Greek Orthodox churches. 28. Turkish propaganda had used the forum of the Islamic Conference to gain support for Turkey's expansionist aims, notwithstanding the fact that the Turkish Republic was a country where Islam had been pushed aside by the State. The Turkish aggressors denounced imaginary desecrations of mosques by Greek Cypriots and called for Islamic solidarity against the "infidels" in order to gain the support of the African and Asian Moslems for Turkey's expansionist claims against its non-Moslem neighbors. Another example of false Turkish allegations was the damage supposedly done to the Hala Sultan Teke near Larnaca. The allegations of sacrilegious acts against that holy place of Islam, supposedly committed by Greek Cypriots, were widely disseminated soon after the Turkish invasion of Cyprus. Nevertheless, the Director of the Department of Religious Affairs of Turkey, after visiting the shrine on 25 July 1975, had expressed his satisfaction that it was in good condition. 29. Desecration of churches was not and could not be an Islamic practice it was merely a tool of Turkish expansionism used as a means of consolidating territorial gains. The Turkish nationalists, having abandoned the doctrines of Islam in their secularized State/ now violated the teachings of the Holy Koran in occupied Cyprus. Islamic law and traditions clearly forbade the desecration and destruction of churches. The Prophet Mohammed himself had manifested his respect for the Greek Orthodox monastery on Mount Sinai and had decreed the eternal freedom of its monks in the exercise of their religion. 30. Desecration by Turks was not confined to places of worship. The invaders did not even respect Christian cemeteries in the occupied part of Cyprus. The British correspondent John Fielding had reported in The Guardian that he had found not a single undecorated graveyard there. A/C.3/38/SR.53 English Page 12 (Mr. Phedonos-Vadet, Cyprus) 31. The Turkish "peace operation" of 1974 had not been limited to the destruction and desecration of churches and tombs/ it had also extended to living human beings. five unarmed priests had been executed in cold blood during July and August 1974, while other priests had been arrested, brutally maltreated and forced to leave the occupied part of Cyprus. He would spare his listeners the details of the cold-blooded execution of 5,000 Greek Cypriots and the expulsion of another 200,000. The Turkish soldiers who had COME to Cyprus to bring so-called "peace" had raped schoolgirls and women in churches. Yet no Islamic court would have left unpunished such odious crimes, committed under the banner of the star and crescent, for the law of Islam was explicit in condemning rape- The destruction of everything Christian in Turkey was, according to its State ideology, an act of patriotism". The destruction of all vestiges of Christianity was the main tool for consolidating the Turkish nation and the ideals of pan-Turkism. The sane "patriotic" behavior was applied by the Government of Turkey in Cyprus, namely, the expulsion of those who were not Turks from the occupied territory and the eradication of any reminders of their former presence. The Buffering of the people of Cyprus had been known to the whole world for the past nine years, and there was no excuse for ignoring - or for pretending to ignore -such an unprecedented crime against Cyprus and its people. 32. Mr. BOUFFANDEAU (Prance) said that the Declaration on the Use of Scientific and Technological Progress in the Interests of Peace and for the Benefit of Mankind drew attention not only to the benefit.-; obtainable from scientific progress but also to its possible dangers. Scientific and technological advances had enabled the international community to make considerable strides in a number of fields such as medicine, food, literacy, information and housing, although in many parts of the world those benefits had not yet been felt. However, progress could not be measured in material terms alone. Man required more than the mere means to exist and function, the right to life, as a careful study of the International Covenants and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights showed, meant the right to live in political, economic and social conditions which allowed each individual to develop he physical and moral personality in conditions of respect for the freedom and dignity of himself and of others. 33. The benefits to mankind of scientific and technological progress were at times offset by the possibility of threats to human rights stemming from misuse of modern technology. In medicine, scientific and technological progress was still occasionally abused to the detriment of human rights, intolerable suffering had been inflicted on human guinea-pigs during the Second World War on behalf of so-called medical research, likewise intolerable was the current use of psychiatric techniques for non-medical purposes. Another example of possible abuse was computer science a study made by Mr. Louis Joined, a member of the Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, on guidelines relating to the use of computerized personal files, provided a better understanding of the danger to observance of human rights inherent in the uncontrolled use of such technology. His delegation hoped that the Commission on Human Rights, once it had studied the report, would draw the requisite conclusions. A/C.3/38/SR.53 English Page 13 (Mr. Bouffandeau, France) 34. The Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief was another useful international human rights instrument. History was replete with instances of persecution on religious grounds, and in many parts of the world the profession of faith still was being deliberately obstructed through administrative measures. Such acts, from outright persecution to covert repression violated basic human rights. A particularly useful step by the international community, therefore had been the reminder, in the Declaration Of its opposition to religious intolerance. His delegation endorsed the undertaking, adopted at the fourth conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe, to recognize the freedom of the individual to profess and practice, alone or with others, a religion or conviction according to the dictates of his own conscience. 35. The Declaration must be given full effect: to that end, all *** human rights forums, including the Commission on Human Rights, must make efforts aimed at remedying the situations and practices to which he had referred. In that spirit, his delegation welcomed the adoption by the Commission on Human Rights of resolution 1983/40, which, inter alia, requested the Secretary-General to organize a seminar on the encouragement of understanding, tolerance and respect In matters relating to freedom of religion or belief. 36. Mr. LOGUGLU (Turkey) , speaking In exercise of the right of reply, said that the Committee's patience was being sorely tried by the Cypriot representative's irresponsible allegations on matters not within the Committee's competence. In the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, freedom of religion and belief was fully protected by the law. 37. Mr. PHEDONOS-VADET (Cyprus) said that the call, in Security Council resolution 541 (1983), upon all States not to recognize any Cypriot State other than the Republic of Cyprus should be observed in United Nations forums. 38. Mr. LOGUGLU (Turkey) said that wild accusations of the sort made earlier in the meeting did not help to improve relations between States. He requested the delegation of Cyprus to adopt a courteous, realistic approach and to desist from the dangerous course of interfering in Turkey's Internal affairs. 39. Mrs. BELLORINI DE PARRALES (Nicaragua) said that, at a recent meeting of the Committee, the United States delegation had made a further baseless attack on Nicaragua as part of the Reagan regime's efforts to destabilize the Nicaraguan Government. It had chosen as its latest topic religious persecution - although the United States seemed totally unconcerned about religious persecution elsewhere in the world, including Chile, where a large meeting of clerics and laymen had been brutally dispersed by police a few days previously. It was part of the United States' propaganda tactics to distort the efforts of the Nicaraguan Government -efforts which all sovereign States were legally entitled to take - to discourage counter-revolutionary man oeuvres, which often took the guise of religious activities. The Government's alas, clearly defined in the 1980 National Convention, Included conservation of the genuinely spiritual side of the Church's activities but curtailment of the part it had hitherto played in political and A/C.3/38/SR.53 English Page 14 (Mrs. Bellorini de Parrales, Nicaragua) economic affairs. The allegations made by the United States representative concerned elements engaged in such activities, and Pax Christi, in its latest annual report, had noted the existence of a branch of the Church engaged in economic opposition and having political affiliations. It should be noted that, on 19 November 1983, Monsignor Vega of Nicaragua, had had a fruitful meeting with Government ministers, at which he had disavowed political activity by the Church. 40. Mr. PHEDONOS-VADET (Cyprus) said that his earlier remarks had been relevant to the Committee's, work, since they had related to the item on the elimination of all forms of religious intolerance. It was clear, from the United Nations decisiona on matters relating to recent events in Cyprus, that it was Turkey's persistent illegal activities which were trying the international community’s patience. The details which the Turkish representative had sought to dismiss as untrue were supported by independent experts' testimony and photographs - all available for inspection. Further evidence was to be seen, moreover, in Turkish and Turkish Cypriot newspaper articles written during the previous 12 months, in 1982 a Turkish Cypriot archaeologist had denounced the disappearance from a church in the region occupied by Turkish Cypriots of a priceless sixth-century Byzantine mosaic. 41. References to interference in a State's internal affairs ill became the spokesman of a country whose blatant aggression against Cyprus was notorious. 42. Mr. INFANTE (Chile) said there was no truth in the allegation made by a previous speaker that Chilean police had broken up a religious demonstration. In Chile, the only recent public meeting of any size had been one of several thousand people, organized by the political opposition, whose right to assembly was recognized by the Chilean authorities - unlike the Nicaraguan Government's attitude to its own political opponents. Religion had always played an important part in Chilean life, as the Nicaraguan delegation could readily verify by reference to its country's Minister for Foreign Affairs, who had been a priest in Chile for eight years. Freedom to profess all faiths prevailed in Chile. It was hoped that His Holiness Pope John Paul II would be able to accept Chile's invitation to visit that country. If he did so, he would certainly not be subjected to the political harassment he had suffered in a certain Central American State. 4 3. Mrs. BELLORINI DE PARRALES (Nicaragua) said that the representative of Chile, instead of making statements in praise of his own country should recall the genocidal record of the Pinochet regime - a matter highly relevant to the Committee's deliberations under item 12. Draft resolution A/C.3/38/L.30 44. Mrs. COLL (Ireland), introducing draft resolution A/c.3/38/L,30, of which Barbados, Chad, Colombia, Prance, the Federal Republic of Germany and Ghana had become sponsors, said that the purpose of the draft was to record and give impetus to the action initiated in General Assembly resolution 37/187. Accordingly, the sponsors had agreed to the inclusion of a new third preambular paragraph, identical to the second preambular paragraph of resolution 37/18 7, that would road: "Believing that further efforts are required to promote and protect the right to A/C.3/38/SR.53 English Page 15 (Mrs. Coll, Ireland) freedom of thought, conscience, religion or whatever belief," Secondly, the original third preambular paragraph, which would now become the fourth preambular paragraph, should begin with the word "Noting" instead of "Welcoming". The sponsors hoped that the draft resolution would be adopted without a vote. AGENDA ITEM 91: UNITED NATIONS DECADE FOR WOMEN; EQUALITY, DEVELOPMENT AND PEACE (continued) (A/C.3/38/L. 21) (a) IMPLEMENTATION OP THE PROGRAMME OP ACTION FOR THE SECOND HALF OP THE UNITED NATIONS DECADE FOR WOMEN* REPORTS OP THE SECRETARY-GENERAL (continued) (b) PREPARATIONS FOR THE WORLD CONFERENCE TO REVIEW AND APPRAISE THE ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE UNITED NATIONS DECADE FOR WOMEN (continued) (C) INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH AND TRAINING INSTITUTE FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF WOMEN] REPORT OP THE SECRETARY-GENERAL (continued) (A/C.3/38/L.20) (d) VOLUNTARY FUND FOR THE UNITED NATIONS DECADE FOR WOMEN: REPORT OP THE SECRETARY-GENERAL (continued) (A/C.3/3B/L. 22) Draft resolution A/C.3/38/L.20 45. Mr., CORTI (Argentina), introducing draft resolution A/C.3/38/L.20, of which Jamaica, Jordan, Nigeria and the Sudan had become sponsors, said that its purpose was to take into consideration the new situation that had arisen with respect to INSTRAW, which had now been established at its headquarters in Santo Domingo. That new situation involved the ongoing work programme, others that were being studied and the future Statute of the Institute, which had to be studied by the Board of Trustees. At the spring session of the Economic and Social Council, a problem had arisen in which there had been 26 candidates for three vacancies on the Board of Trustees. While that demonstrated interest in the Institute, especially on the part of developing countries, it also showed the desire of some regions for better representation on the Board. The next session of the Board would be in January 1984, when it would study a draft Statute for the Institute. The sponsors felt that it would then be timely to take up other matters, and it was for that reason that operative paragraph 3 had been drafted. The sponsors also felt that once the Decade for Women had ended, the Institute should report to the General Assembly every two years in order to reduce expenditures. It was for that reason that they requested in operative paragraph 7 that the provisional agenda of the thirty-ninth session should include a separate item on the Institute. They hoped that as in the past, the draft resolution would be adopted without a vote. Draft resolution A/C.3/38/L.21 46. Mrs. SALZLER (German Democratic Republic), introducing draft resolution A/C.3/38/L.21, of which Cape Verde, Democratic Yemen and Viet Nam had become sponsors, said that the current world situation was characterized by aggression And the threat of new wars. However, it also showed an ever greater yearning of A/C.3/38/5R.53 English Page 16 (Mrs. Saizler, German Democratic Republic) peoples for peace. Many women had joined the constantly growing world-vide movement for peace and that underscored the necessity of having an international document which guaranteed the participation of woman in efforts aimed at promoting international peace and co-operation. She wished to draw attention to a typographical error in the second line of operative paragraph 5, which should begin with the words "at the thirty-ninth session". The sponsors hoped that the draft resolution would be adopted by all Member States without a vote. Draft resolution A/C.3/3B/L. 22 47. Mrs. MIGNOTT (Jamaica), introducing draft resolution A/C.3/38/L.22 on behalf of the members of the Consultative Committee on the Voluntary Fund, said that the sponsors had agreed to certain changes in the text. In the second line of paragraph 1 the words "referring to" should be replaced by "referred to in". Paragraph 3 should begin with the words "Urges the Secretary-General in Consultation with the Executive Secretaries of the regional commissions to give priority to solving the question of senior women's programme officers and to take Urgently ...". In the first line of paragraph 12, and the first line of paragraph 15, the word "also" should be deleted, 48. Paragraphs 2 and 3 were intended to reflect the sentiments expressed at the thirteenth and fourteenth sessions of the Consultative Committee on the Fund. The rest of the draft resolution was self-explanatory. Members of the Third Committee had always demonstrated support for the Fund and had reiterated the importance which they attached to its activities. The sponsors therefore hoped that the draft resolution would be adopted by consensus. AGENDA ITEM 92: ELIMINATION OF ALL FORMS OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN (continued) (A/C.3/38/L. 19) (a) REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE ELIMINATION OP DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN (continued) (b) STATUS OF THE CONVENTION ON THE ELIMINATION OF ALL FORMS OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN: RESORT OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL (continued) Draft resolution A/C.3/38/L. 19 49. Mr. SALAND (Sweden), introducing draft resolution A/C.3/38/L.19, of which Guinea had become a sponsor, said that a major step in the efforts to achieve equal rights for women everywhere had been the entry into force of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. The draft resolution reflected the satisfaction expressed by many speakers with the Convention and with the fact that the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women had successfully started its work. The sponsors wanted the Convention to become a truly universal instrument and therefore hoped that the draft resolution could be adopted without a vote. The meeting rose at 6 p.m.