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Letter dated 91/11/22 from the Permanent Representative of Zimbabwe to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General.

Extracted Text



General Assembly

26 November 1991

Forty-sixth session
Agenda items 19, 22, 37, 43, 45, 46, 47,
60 (c) and (e), 66, 68, 69, 79, 88,
94, 95, 96, 98, 100 and 102
91-45820 3482a (E)

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Latter Dated 22 November 1991 from the Permanent Representative of Zimbabwe to the United Nations
Addressed to the Secretary-General

I have the honour to transmit to you herewith the text of the Harare Commonwealth Communique following the meeting of the Heads of Government of the countries of the Commonwealth, held at Harare, from 16 to 22 October 1991 (see annex).
I should be grateful if you would arrange to have the text of the present
letter and its annex circulated as an official document of the General
Assembly under agenda items 19, 22, 37, 43, 45, 46, 47, 60 (c) and (e), 66,
68, 69, 79, 88, 94, 95, 96, 98, 100 and 102.
(Signed) Simbarashe S. MUMBENGEGWI Ambassador Permanent Representative



The Heads of Government of the countries of the Commonwealth, meeting in Harare, reaffirm their confidence in the Commonwealth as a voluntary association of sovereign independent states, each responsible for its own policies, consulting and co-operating in the interests of their peoples and in the promotion of international understanding and world peace.

2. Members of the Commonwealth include people of many different races and origins, encompass every stage of economic development, and comprise a rich variety of cultures, traditions and institutions.

3. The special strength of the Commonwealth lies in the combination of the diversity of its members with their shared inheritance in language, culture and the rule of. law. The Commonwealth way is to seek consensus through consultation and the sharing of experience. It is uniquely placed to serve as a model and as a catalyst for new forms of friendship and co-operation to all in the spirit of the Charter of the United Nations.

4. Its members also share a commitment to certain fundamental principles. These were set out in a Declaration of Commonwealth Principles agreed by our predecessors at their Meeting in Singapore in'1971. Those principles have stood the test of time, and we reaffirm our full and continuing commitment to them today. In particular, no less today than 20 years ago:
we believe that international peace and order, global economic development and the rule of international law are essential to the security and prosperity of mankind;

we believe in the liberty of the individual under the law, in equal rights for all citizens regardless of gender, race, colour, creed or political belief, and in the individual's inalienable right to participate by means of free and democratic political processes in framing the society in which he or she lives;
we recognize racial prejudice and intolerance as a dangerous sickness and a threat to healthy development, and racial discrimination as an unmitigated evil;

we oppose all forms of racial oppression, and we are committed to the principles of human dignity and equality;
we recognize the importance and urgency of economic and social development to satisfy the basic needs and aspirations of the vast majority of the peoples of the world, and seek the progressive removal of the wide disparities in living standards amongst our members.

5. In Harare, our purpose has been to apply those principles in
the contemporary situation as the Commonwealth prepares to face
the challenges of the 1990s and beyond.

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Internationally, the would is no longer loked in the irongrip of the cold war. Totalitarianism is giving way to democarcy and justice in many parts of the world. Decolonisation is largely complete. Significant Changes are at last under way in
South Africa. Thses Changes, so desirable and heartening in themselves, present the world and the Commonwealth with nwe tasks and challenges
7. in the last twenty years, several Commonwealth countries have made significant progress in economic and social development. There is increasing recognition that commitment to market principles and openness to international trade and investment can promote economic progress and improve living standards. Many Commonwealth countries are poor and face acute problems, including excessive population growth, crushing poverty, debt burdens and environmental degradation. More than half our member states are particularly vulnerable because of their very small societies.

8. Only sound and sustainable development can offer these millions the prospect of betterment. Achieving this will require a flow of public and private resources from the developed to the developing world, and domestic and international regimes conducive to the realization of these goals. Development facilitates the task of tackling a range of problems which affect the whole global community such as environmental degradation, the problems of migration and refugees, the fight against communicable diseases, and drug production and trafficking.

9. Having reaffirmed the principles to which the Commonwealth is committed, and reviewed the problems and challenges which the world, and the Commonwealth as part of it, face, we pledge the Commonwealth and our countries to work with renewed vigor, concentrating especially in the following areas:
the protection and promotion of the fundamental political values of the Commonwealth:
democracy, democratic processes and institutions which reflect national circumstances, the rule of law and the independence of the judiciary, just and honest government;
fundamental human rights, including equal rights and opportunities for all citizens regardless of race, colour, creed or political belief;
equality for women, so that they may exercise their full and equal rights;
provision of universal access to education for the population of our countries;
continuing action to bring about the end of apartheid and the establishment of a free, democratic, non-racial and prosperous South Africa;
the promotion of sustainable development and the alleviation of poverty in the countries of the Commonwealth through:

a stable international economic framework within which growth can be achieved;
sound economic management recognizing the central role of the market economy;
effective population policies and programmes;
sound management of technological change;
the freest possible flow of multilateral trade on terms fair and equitable to all, talking account of the special requirements of developing countries;
an adequate flow of resources from the developed to developing countries, and action to alleviate the debt burdens of developing countries most in need;
the development of human resources, in particular through education, training, health, culture, sport and programmes for strengthening family and community support, paying special attention to the needs of women, youth and children;
effective and increasing programmes of bilateral and multilateral co-operation aimed at raising living standards;
extending the benefits of development within a framework of respect for human rights;
the protection of the environment through respect for the principles of sustainable development which we enunciated at Langkawi;
action to combat drug trafficking and abuse and communicable diseases;
help for small Commonwealth states in tackling their particular economic and security problems;
support of the United Nations and other international institutions in the world's search for peace, disarmament and affective arms control; and in the promotion of international consensus on major global political, economic and social issues.
10. To give weight and effectiveness to our commitments we intend to focus and improve Commonwealth co-operation in these areas. This would include strengthening the capacity of the Commonwealth to respond to requests from members for assistance in entrenching the practices of democracy, accountable administration and the rule of law.
11. We call on all the intergovernmental institutions of the Commonwealth to seize the opportunities presented by these challenges. We pledge ourselves to assist them to develop programmes which harness our shared historical, professional, cultural and linguistic heritage and which complement the work of

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other international and regional organisations.
12. We invite the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association and non-governmental Commonwealth organisations to play their full part in promoting these objectives, in a spirit of co-operation and mutual support.
1.3. In reaffirming the principles of the Commonwealth and in committing ourselves to pursue them in policy and action in response to the challenges of the 1990s, in areas where we believe that the Commonwealth has a distinctive contribution to offer, we the Heads of Government express our determination to renew and enhance the value and importance of the Commonwealth as an institution which can and should strengthen and enrich the lives not only of its own members and their peoples but also of the wider community of peoples of which they are a part.
20 October 1991

1. Commonwealth Heads of Government met in Harare from 16 to 22 October 1991. Of the 47 countries which attended 43 were represented by Heads of State or Prime Ministers. The President of Zimbabwe, Mr Robert Mugabe, was in the Chair.
2. Heads of Government sent a message of felicitation to *** Majesty The Queen as Head of the Commonwealth, They particularly welcomed the opportunity of meeting in Harare at a critical stage in progress towards ending apartheid in South Africa, a longstanding Commonwealth concern. They expressed deep appreciation of the excellent arrangements made for the Meeting and the warm welcome and generous hospitality of the Government and people of Zimbabwe.
3. Recalling the offer of Commonwealth membership extended to Namibia at their Meeting in Kingston in 1975, Heads of Government warmly welcomed their colleague President Sam Nujoma from Namibia whose country had joined the Commonwealth in 1990.
4. Heads of Government expressed their grief at the death of Rajiv Gandhi and observed a minute of silence in his memory.
The Future of the Commonwealth
5. Heads of Government had before them the Report on the Commonwealth in the 1990s and Beyond prepared by ten of their number under the Chairmanship of the Prime Minister of Malaysia. The Report formed the centerpiece of their discussions.
6. Heads of Government were unanimously of the view that the fundamental principles enunciated by Commonwealth leaders at Singapore in 1971 remained relevant 20 years later and that the Commonwealth should reaffirm its full and continuing commitment to those principles. Any appraisal of the Commonwealth's future role should rest on the application of those principles to the contemporary world.
7. They were convinced that, in facing the challenges of the future, the Commonwealth would draw upon its unique strength and character, rooted in its shared ideals, common traditions and language, in its membership which spans nearly one-third of humanity and every corner of the globe and in its ability to fashion a sense of common purpose out of diversity.
8. The discussions of the High-Level Appraisal Group served to identify several areas, some old and others new, which deserved special emphasis on Commonwealth endeavours in years to come. The views of Heads of Government in this regard are contained in a separate document, the Harare Commonwealth Declaration. They

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also endorsed guidelines for the Commonwealth observance of elections, criteria for Commonwealth membership and a strategy for sharpening the Commonwealth image.
9. The High-Level Appraisal reflected the continuing concern of Heads of Government with the situation in South Africa, while recent changes have raised hopes of achieving a free, nor-racial and democratic order in South Africa, violence continues to obstruct progress. The Commonwealth has played a leading role in the international campaign against apartheid. Now that the goal is closer than ever before, Heads of Government considered ways in which the Commonwealth should continue to play a significant role in progress towards a non-racial democratic South Africa.
10. Heads of Government also gave consideration to the adequacy of Commonwealth institutions, including the secretariat, to fulfil the task ahead. They welcomed the Secretary-General's internal review which had identified a measure of existing resources which could be releasea for redeployment to priorities identified in the Harare Commonwealth Declaration and endorsed his proposal to institute a management audit, to be undertaken by external consultants, designed to enhance the cost-effectiveness and efficiency of the Secretariat. while commending the proposals contained in the Secretary-General's Strategic Action Plan they considered that these should be further examined by senior officials of the High-Level Appraisal Group in the light of the priorities agreed to at the Harare Heads of Government Meeting, taking into account the management audit and the Secretariat's need for adequate resources to .implement these priorities. If it emerged that additional resources were still required, after available resources had been matched to needs, Heads of Government agreed to consider making appropriate contributions.
Global Trends and Prospects
11. Heads of Government welcomed the end of the Cold War which had provided new opportunities and greatly improved prospects for international peace, security and economic development. The end of ideological confrontation had made possible more effective international co-operation in addressing the many problems, old and new, facing humanity. Foremost among these were poverty, hunger, disease and environmental degradation. They expressed the hope that in a new international order these issues would be of central concern.
12. Heads of Government were particularly encouraged by the resurgence of democratic ideals throughout the world. They undertook to use the Commonwealth's common values and practical means to help advance this hopeful development. Nevertheless the emergence of ethnic chauvinism, racial bigotry, and other forms of intolerance was a cause for serious concern, posing grave threats to peace and communal harmony. Accordingly they agreed to do everything practicable, both within their own societies and internationally, to combat discrimination in all its forms end to promote democracy, human rights, mutual tolerance and the rule of law through processes and institutions which have regard to national circumstances.

13. Heads of Government recognized that opportunities to promote
the ideals which inspired the establishment of the United Nations
had never been better. Reaffirming their commitment to the world
organisation, they agreed to work together to enable it to
discharge the role envisaged in its Charter.
14. Heads of Government warmly welcomed the recent dramatic initiative by the United States, matched by the Soviet Union and Britain to reduce their nuclear arsenals which had greatly enhanced the prospects for world peace. They urged these states to continue their efforts and for other nuclear weapons states to do the same. In this context most Heads of Government called for a permanent halt to all further nuclear testing.
15. Heads of Government noted with concern the continuing dangers of regional and local conflicts. These dangers, And the example of the Gulf war, underlined the need to strengthen international regimes limiting weapons of mass destruction and the need to curb the build-up of conventional weapons beyond the legitimate requirements of self-defence. In this context they noted the recent accessions of several states to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. They strongly urged all states to redouble efforts to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons in all its aspects. They called for the conclusion of a Chemical weapons Convention in 1992 and endorsed in principle the proposal to establish a register of arms transfers at the united Nations.
Human Rights
16. Heads of Government reaffirmed their strong collective commitment to the principles of justice and human rights, including the rule of law, the independence of the judiciary, equality for women and accountable administrations. They supported the Report and recommendations of the Commonwealth Governmental Working Group of Experts on Human Rights'. Recognising that human rights is one of the priorities identified in the Harare Declaration, they requested the Secretariat to give greater impetus to its current activities to promote human rights in all its aspects. Heads of Government recognized the role that non-governmental organisations could play in this area.
17. Believing the International Bill of Human Rights to be the cornerstone of international human rights, Heads of Government reiterated their call to those of their members who have not already done so, to become a party to the International Covenants on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and on Civil and Political Rights.
South Africa
18. Heads of Government welcomed the important changes that had taken place in South Africa in the last 20 months since the initiatives taken by President de Klerk. These were a vindication of the long years of implacable opposition to apartheid by the democratic opposition forces, and in particular

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of the tenacity and courage of the liberation movements. These developments had also vindicated the Commonwealth's pre-eminent role in leading international action in support of the struggle to end apartheid. The developments had brought into sight the goal of the eradication of apartheid and the establishment of a non-racial democracy in a united and non-fragmented South Africa.
19. Heads of Government urged all the parties in South Africa to move as quickly as possible to constitutional negotiations. Expressing the hope that the recent tragic escalation of violence would not further set back this process, they strongly condemned this violence and called upon the South African Government as well as on all the parties in South Africa to bring it to an end as a matter of the utmost urgency. In this context they viewed with grave concern both revelations of covert Government funding of political organisations and the mounting reports of the involvement of elements within the security forces in perpetrating acts of violence. They welcomed the Peace Accord and called for its full implementation as quickly as possible.
20. while the terms of a constitutional settlement were for the people of South Africa themselves to determine, Heads believed that the Commonwealth must remain ready to assist the negotiating process in ways that would be found helpful by the parties concerned. They therefore decided to request the Secretary-General to visit South Africa at the earliest possible opportunity in order to explore with the principal parties concerned ways in which the Commonwealth could assist in lending momentum to the negotiating process.
21. On his return, the Secretary-General would report his conclusions to the Ten Heads of Government previously concerned with the High-Level Appraisal, and to the President of Zimbabwe, Chairman of the current Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting. Heads authorized this Group to consider and determine the necessary follow-up action in the light of the Secretary-General's mission.
22. Heads of Government expressed the hope that the stage would be reached when the situation in South Africa would justify reconsideration of their sanctions policy against South Africa. They recalled that the purpose of sanctions had always been, to bring about a peaceful end to apartheid through the promotion of negotiations between the Government and the acknowledged representatives of the black majority. In recognition of the crucial role sanctions ><ad played in bringing about the changes thus far, they agreed to continue to use effective forms of pressure to assure a successful final outcome to the conflict in South Africa. Accordingly (subject to the proviso in the following paragraph) they endorsed the programmed management approach, elaborated by the Commonwealth Committee of Foreign Ministers on Southern Africa, linking any change in the application of sanctions to the taxing of real and practical steps to end apartheid. In respect of the different categories of sanctions, subject to the same proviso, Heads of Government agreed as follows:

the aims embargo, applied by the United Nations and supported by a variety of specific Commonwealth measures, should remain in force until a new post-apartheid South African government is firmly established, with full democratic control and accountability;
the most demonstrably effective of all sanctions - financial sanctions - including lending by international financial institutions such as the IMF and World Bank - should be lifted only when agreement is reached on the text of a new democratic constitution, unless a contrary recommendation is made by agreement at the proposed All-Party Conference, or by an interim government;
other economic sanctions, including trade and investment measures, should be lifted when appropriate transitional mechanisms have been agreed which would enable all the parties to participate fully and effectively in negotiations;
people to people sanctions, namely consular and visa restrictions, cultural and scientific boycotts, restrictions on tourism promotion and the ban on direct air links should be lifted immediately in view of progress made in overcoming obstacles to negotiations and the need to give external support and encouragement to democratic anti-apartheid organisations in South Africa and to permit free interaction with them. The ban on air links would be lifted on condition that South African Airways (SAA) and other South African airlines proceed with appropriate affirmative action programmes.
23. The British Prime Minister stressed the importance of
foreign investment in restoring growth to the South African
economy and the need for decisions now if the current economic
decline was to be halted in time for the inauguration of South
Africa's first majority government. It is for this reason that,
while agreeing with the lifting of "people sanctions" and the
maintenance of the arms embargo, he did not agree with the
recommendation of the Committee on the time scale for lifting
economic and financial sanctions.
Sporting Contacts with South Africa
24. Heads of Government were encouraged by the recent
considerable progress in the evolution of a unified and non-
racial sports movement in South Africa and welcomed the decision
of the International Olympic Committee to grant recognition to
the National Olympic Committee of South Africa. They agreed to
continue to encourage these developments and, where appropriate,
to provide assistance. They stressed the need for each sporting
code to provide assistance to sportsmen and women disadvantaged
by apartheid. They agreed that restrictions in respect of a
particular sport be lifted when the following criteria have been

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the formal endorsement of the achievement of unity by the appropriate representative non-racial sporting organisation in South Africa;
readmittance to the relevant international governing body;
agreement of the appropriate non-racial sporting organisation within South Africa to resume international competition.
25. Commonwealth governments would continue to be guided in these matters by the National Olympic Committee of South Africa and other appropriate representative non-racial snorting organisations. In particular they welcomed the achievement of cricket in this regard and expressed the strong hope that the International Cricket Conference would accept South Africa's entry in the forthcoming world Cup.
Hunan Resource Development for a Post-Apartheid South Africa
26. Heads of Government, recognizing that the education and training of members of the deprived majority to occupy strategic positions in the transition period and beyond would be crucial to progress, welcomed the Report of the Expert Group on Human Resource Development for a Post-Apartheid south Africa, Beyond Apartheid. They looked forward to a significant role for the Commonwealth in addressing the Report's priorities and strategies in partnership with the wider international community. They agreed to assist in meeting the human resource development needs of post-apartheid South Africa on a bilateral and multilateral basis, which could include a voluntary multilateral Commonwealth Programme for Human Resource Development in South Africa. An immediate start should be made to support training and placements within South Africa as well as continuing training and placements outside South Africa.
27. Heads of Government attached importance to an increased role for the Commonwealth network of non-governmental organisations, Skills for South Africa, in the implementation of the Expert Group's recommendations. They called for increased bilateral Commonwealth and other programmes in this area and requested the Secretary-General to bring the Expert Group's Report to the attention of the international community and to explore the possibility of convening, in collaboration with the United Nations, an international donors' conference.
Commonwealth Committee of Foreign Ministers on Southern Africa
28. Heads of Government decided that the Commonwealth Committee of Foreign Ministers on Southern Africa under the continuing Chairmanship of the Canadian Secretary of State for External Affairs should remain ready to meet as and when necessary until the completion of the implementation of 'their recommendations.

South African Economic studies
29. Heads of Government recognized the valuable contribution made by the Centre for the study of the South African Economy and International Finance and locked forward to the continuation of its work.
30. Heads of Government welcomed the independence of Namibia and the interim agreement between the Government of Namibia and the Government of South Africa to establish a joint Administration of Walvis Bay and the off-shore islands pending a final settlement. They urged the early reintegration of these territories into Namibia in accordance with United Nations Security council Resolution 432 (1978). Noting the importance attached by the Government of Namibia to the Enhanced Commonwealth Programme for Namibia, Heads of Government commended the Programme and reaffirmed their support.
31. Heads of Government remained gravely concerned over the continuing conflict in Mozambique which was still claiming human lives and destroying socio-economic infrastructures. They urged an immediate end to all external assistance, material and otherwise, to the MNR. They pledged their support to the search for peace and urged the international community to do everything practicable to advance the peace process. They called upon the parties to the Rome Agreement of 1 December 1990 to honour its letter and spirit, and commended the Government of Mozambique and the mediators in Rome for their persistent efforts to bring about a comprehensive peace settlement and national reconciliation. In this context they further noted that a protocol had been signed on 18 October 1991 which committed both sides to achieving a general peace agreement as soon as possible. Accordingly, they strongly urged the parties to move expeditiously towards the signing of such an agreement.
32. Heads of Government expressed gratitude to those countries hosting the Mozambican refugees who continue to flee from their country and appealed to the international community to continue to render assistance to them. They noted that the plans for the post-war resettlement and rehabilitation of displaced peoples and the normalization of life in general laid particular emphasis on the strengthening of institutional capacity to guarantee and promote democratic practices. In this context they commended the Special Commonwealth Fund for Mozambique for its contribution to Mozambique's priority needs which is effectively augmenting the significant bilateral contributions of Commonwealth countries, both developed and developing. They recognized that continuing pledges and contributions would be required to enable the Fund to maintain a full five year programme, including assistance in preparations for multiparty elections and in other aspects of institutional development.

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33. Heads of Government also welcomed the signing of a peace accord in Angola between the Government and UNITA, and urged the international community to assist in its implementation, including the democratization process', and in Angola's reconstruction.
Small States
34. heads of Government recognized that international developments continued to demonstrate the vulnerability peculiar to small states, and they urged support for initiatives at the bilateral, regional and multilateral levels that would foster an environment conducive to their security and viability. They reaffirmed their view that small states merit special consideration and support because of their particular problems and should continue to have priority in the Secretariat's development assistance. Noting that current trends in official and private financial flows to developing countries and the erosion of trade preferences could make these states even more vulnerable, they urged that the donor community should continue to take into account their special structural problems and needs.
35. Heads of Government welcomed Guatemala's recognition of Belize as a sovereign, independent state, and looked forward to the speedy conclusion of a formal agreement which would bring an end to the dispute and foster co-operation between the two states for the benefit of both their peoples and the wider region. They reaffirmed that until a satisfactory outcome is reached, the security of Belize will remain a Commonwealth concern.
36. Recalling the position they had adopted at Kuala Lumpur, Heads of Government reiterated their support for the independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity, unity and non-aligned status of the Republic of Cyprus. They stressed the importance of securing compliance with all of the United Nations Resolutions on Cyprus and in particular, Security Council Resolutions 541 (1983), 550 (1984) and 649 (1990). In this connection they emphasized the need for the speedy withdrawal of all foreign forces and settlers from the Republic of Cyprus, the return of the refugees to their homes in safety, the restoration and respect for the human rights of all Cypriots and the accounting for those missing.
37. Heads of Government noted the recent developments on the Cyprus problem contained in the latest report of the United Nations Secretary-General to the Security Council and its respective Resolution 716 (1991) setting out the fundamental principles of a Cyprus settlement. Such a settlement will ensure the well-being and security of all Cypriots, Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots alike. They also expressed the hope that,

following the Resolution, obstacles to the current efforts of the United Nations Secretary-General to find a just and viable solution to the Cyprus problem will be speedily removed and thus the convening of the envisaged international meeting will proceed as planned.
38. Heads of Government agreed that the Commonwealth Action Group on Cyprus should continue to monitor developments within the 9cope of its terms of reference including, in particular, assisting the efforts of the United Nations Secretary-General.
39. Heads of Government expressed support for continuing efforts to contribute actively to the elimination of causes of tension in the Mediterranean and to the promotion of a just and lasting solution to the conflicts and crises in the region, in accordance with the United Nations Charter and relevant resolutions. They once again reiterated that security in the Mediterranean is closely linked to European security, as well as to international peace and security. They noted that regional consultations among Mediterranean states are taking place in order to create appropriate conditions for convening a Conference on Security and Co-operation in the Mediterranean.
The Middle East
40. Heads of Government, recalling their statement at Kuala Lumpur on the Middle East and reiterating their concern at the dangerous tensions arising from the unresolved problems of the Middle East, especially the Palestinian issue, welcomed the convening of the Middle East Peace Conference in Madrid on 30 October 1991. They expressed the strong hope that the Conference would lead to a just, comprehensive, and lasting settlement and contribute to peace and security in the Middle East.
41. Recent developments have increased the prospects of a comprehensive political settlement of the Afghanistan problem and Heads of Government urged that efforts be intensified to restore peace and normalcy in Afghanistan and enable the Afghan refugees to return to their country. They expressed support for the United Nations Secretary-General's five-point proposal of 21 May 1991 and the initiatives of other states to reach a Just settlement in Afghanistan and also appealed for continued humanitarian assistance for the Afghan refugees.
South East Asia
42. Heads of Government welcomed the reconvening of the Paris International Conference on Cambodia (PICC) in Paris from 21 to 23 October 1991 whose objective is to bring about a comprehensive political settlement of the Cambodian problem through the signing of a peace agreement. In this regard, they congratulated the

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Cambodian parties for demonstrating a spirit of compromise and national reconciliation under the leadership of Prince Sihanouk.
43. As a further means of ensuring peace and stability in the region, Heads of Government noted with approval efforts to establish in South East Asia a zone of peace, freedom and neutrality and called on ail states fully to support these efforts.
44. Recognising that Antarctica has a critical impact on the environment, Heads of Government welcomed the agreement reached in Madrid on a Protocol for the protection of the Antarctica environment, including a prohibition on mining activities in Antarctica. They reiterated their conviction that every effort should be made to protect and conserve the environment of that unique territory and called on all states to co-operate in this regard.
45.- Heads of Government reaffirmed their strong condemnation of terrorism in all its forms, including the taking of hostages, as one of the most dangerous and pernicious threats to stability and to human rights. They reiterated their determination to combat terrorism, whether perpetrated by individuals, groups or states, by every means possible through bilateral and multilateral co-operation.
Countering Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking
46. Heads of Government expressed deep concern at the increasing menace of drug abuse and illicit trafficking which represents both a serious obstacle to the process of social and economic national development and a threat to the international community. They welcomed the restructuring of the United Nations drug control system, including the establishment of the United Nations International Drug Control Programme to enhance the international campaign against drug abuse and illicit trafficking, and affirmed their support for the Global Programme of Action adopted by the Seventeenth Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly in February 1990.
47. They recognized that imaginative approaches were called for if effective responses were to be developed, particularly to reduce the demand for illicit drugs, and acknowledged that it was imperative for all countries to have appropriate legal frameworks to counter supply. In this regard they undertook to take such steps as might be necessary to become party to the 1988 United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Illicit substances, and to implement the Commonwealth Scheme for Mutual Assistance in criminal Matters. They also expressed their support for the Programme of Action adopted by the World Ministerial Summit on Demand Reduction held in London in April 1990.

World Economic Situation
48. Heads of Government reviewed the current world economic situation. They expressed satisfaction that policies pursued by many industrialized countries to keep inflationary forces in check were bearing results; and that many developing countries were maintaining reform policies despite continuing difficult economic circumstances.
49. Heads of Government noted that while the past year had been a difficult one for the world economy, the prospects were now more hopeful in a number of countries. They expressed concern, however, at the external economic conditions which in many respects for example high interest rates, depressed commodity prices, low volume of financial flows, onerous debt service burdens, continuing protectionism in major markets and inward-looking regional groupings - remained unfavourable to developing countries. They emphasized the importance of pursuing policies that strengthened the forces of recovery in the world economy; and expressed their determination to work through co-operative international action for a more supportive global environment for development. They agreed that any new world order must comprise enhanced development co-operation.
Global Change and Economic Development
50. Heads of Government noted that they were meeting at a time of dramatic change not only in the world political and economic order, but also in ideas about how societies should be organized. They believed that these changes bring both opportunities and problems for all societies. In this context, they welcomed the Report of the Commonwealth Expert Group, Change for the Better: Global Change and Economic Development, which had begun to receive a very favourable international reception. They agreed with its central conclusion that change is resulting in an ever increasing interdependence among nations and that there is a growing mutuality of interest in addressing issues such as poverty, insecurity, environmental degradation, disease and drug trafficking which can be effectively tackled only through development. They also agreed with the Group's view that this required a sustained exercise of political will at national and international levels. They asked the Chairman and the Secretary-General to promote a wide-ranging discussion of the Report; and agreed to take steps at the same time, to promote consideration of the Expert Group's recommendations at high political levels, particularly in specialist economic and regional groupings of which they were members. They also noted that the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in mid-1992, which will be attended by many Heads of State, would offer a good opportunity for discussion of many of the issues raised.
51. In relation to specific issues, Heads of Government welcomed the emphasis in Change for the Better on improved policies to achieve macro-economic stability, reduced budget deficits, reduced military spending, increased savings and investment, more open trade policies, greater reliance on the private sector, market-oriented economies, human resource development, effective

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population policies, agricultural reform, sound and accountable
administration, participatory political processes and the rule of
law. They emphasized also the importance of enhanced practical
support by the developed countries and international institutions
for the developing countries' efforts if they are to succeed. In
particular they stressed the need to insure larger flows of
resources including increased aid and debt relief , mora open
markets, safety nets for vulnerable groups, increased support for
structural adjustment, and financial and technological support to
make development sustainable
International Trade and the Uruguay Round
52. Heads of Government deplored the drift towards greater protectionism and further trade discrimination in some industrial countries, particularly when a large number of countries in the developing world as well as in Eastern Europe and elsewhere had embarked on unilateral trade liberalization programmes. They noted that more protectionism had led to slower growth in world trade which, in turn, had slowed world economic growth. Furthermore export growth in developing countries had been constrained by limited access to markets in developed countries. They noted the inconsistency of developed countries urging developing countries to open their economies to market forces while limiting access to their own markets. The loss to developing countries as a result of these trade barriers more than outweighed the flow of aid moneys. Heads of Governmental called for the multilateral liberalization of world .trade in order to ensure that the world does not repeat the mistakes of the protectionist 1930s; and enlarged access to world markets for developing countries through a liberalized international trading system to help them to expand their exports and to overcome the difficulties caused by constrained inflows of aid and other resources from developed countries.
53. Heads of Government noted that they were meeting at a critical stage in the Uruguay Round. They noted also that there was a growing international momentum for substantial reform of the world trading system. They welcomed the clear commitment by leaders of the Group of Seven industrialized countries at their London summit to work for an ambitious global and balanced package of results in the Round. Heads of Government called on all governments to show the political will required urgently to translate- into action that momentum for reform to achieve a "beralistd trading system. They stressed the critical importance of a successful, substantive and comprehensive outcome to the Uruguay Round, laying particular emphasis on achieving a marked. reaction in trade barriers and other distortions in agricultural markets. They drew attention to the dangers of protectionism and iSward-iooking regionalism and to the great contribution which freer trade and its influence on financial flows can make to sustained and sustainable development. The preservation and enhancement of the integrity of! The global trading system is J common interest of developing and industrialized countries. They felt that if the Uruguay Round were to fail, this would increase the dangers of protectionism and very considerably reduce the orcspects for economic growth and development in the 1990s and beyond, as well as set back the process of economic

liberalization in many countries.
Regional Economic Co-operation
54. Heads of Government welcomed the increasing efforts in many parts of the world to strengthen and expand regional economic co-operation. They expressed the hope that these efforts would promote trade expansion and strengthen a more open and nondiscriminatory multilateral trading system. They called on regional trading groups involving major industrialized countries to give special attention to the impact of their regional trade policies on developing countries, including those not in such groups, and to ways in which these countries could take advantage of the opportunities offered. They recognized the need for increased assistance to support regional co-operation among vulnerable countries.
Financial Flows and Debt
55. Heads of Government noted that, despite improvements in financial flows to some developing countries, flows overall remained quite inadequate to support economic recovery in large parts of the developing world, and, to address such current concerns as poverty reduction, human resource development and protection of the environment. They therefore called for further debt relief, including cancellation, and increased aid and capital flows, as well as for further measures in developing countries to attract such flows.
56. Heads of Government warmly welcomed the announcement at their Meeting, by the British Prime Minister, the R.t. Hon. John Major, of his Government's decision to press ahead with implementation of the Trinidad and Tobago Terms, providing major relief of the debt of low income countries. They ware pleased that Canada endorsed the decision. They expressed the hope that Britain and Canada would be Joined in this by. other Paris Club members and that this action would lead to speedy adoption by the whole Paris club. They praised the British Prime Minister for his leadership role in tackling the indebtedness problem of the poorest countries.
57. Heads of Government noted the debt relief extended to Poland and Egypt and welcomed the fact that the Paris Club was continuing to examine the special situations of some other lower-middle income countries. Indebtedness to multilateral financial institutions continues to be a particular problem for some countries and further attention needs to be given to the issue by the donor community. They emphasized also the importance of adequate financial support for those countries in difficult circumstances which have avoided debt rescheduling. They welcomed the British Prime Minister's offer to seek wider eligibility under the IMF's Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility to include more Commonwealth countries.
58. Heads of Government expressed regret that during the 1980s the aid of most Development Assistance Committee donors had stagnated as a proportion of their gross national product and

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still fall short of the agreed United Nations target of 0.7 per cant of GNP. They called for renewed efforts to secure expanded official and private flows of finance to developing countries. They welcomed the fact that reduced global tensions are already resulting in cuts in arms expenditure and agreed that this provided significant opportunities for both the industrialized and the developing countries to increase resources for development.
Reforms in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union
59. Heads of Government welcomed the profound movement that is taking place in- Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union towards democracy and market-oriented economies. They stressed the importance of its success for world peace and security They emphasized, however, that support for reform in that ragion should not be extended in a manner that is prejudicial to developing countries in terms either of market access or of aid flows.
Investment Funds and Capital Markets
60. Heads of Government welcomed the facilitative role the Commonwealth Secretariat is playing in enhancing portfolio investment in developing member countries. They noted with satisfaction that the Commonwealth Equity Fund had been successfully launched in 1990 and that its operations had made good progress. They looked forward to an early increase of its capital and wider access for its investment in Commonwealth emerging markets.
61. While recognizing the importance of tapping external financial flows for their development efforts, Heads of Government emphasized that the primary source of investment would continue to be domestic. They therefore urged all countries to strengthen their efforts to mobilize domestic savings, which required, among other things, the development of local capital and stock markets.
62. Heads of Government noted the proposal for the establishment of a Commonwealth Bank for Reconstruction and Development and agreed that a preliminary study of the proposal be conducted by the Commonwealth Secretariat.
Least Developed Countries
63. Heads of Government expressed serious concern at the deteriorating socio-economic condition of the least developed countries (LDCs). They noted that these countries faced the most formidable structural constraints to development. They pledged their support for effective implementation of the Programme of Action for the LDCs adopted by the Second United Nations Conference on LDCs in September 1990. They recognized that, while the LDCs bear 'the primary responsibility for their own development, the developed countries should commit resources to attain the internationally agreed target for Official Development

Assistance to these countries as expeditiously as possible.
64. Heads of Government expressed concern at the continuing severe food problems facing developing countries. They stressed the need for these countries to strengthen their policies and incentives for sustainable agricultural development. They urged the developed countries and the international institutions to adopt supportive trade, aid and other policies which would make external conditions more conducive to developing countries' agriculture.
65. Heads of Government recalled the Langkawi Declaration on Environment, which set out a comprehensive programme of action for the protection of the global environment and the achievement of sustainable development. In that connection they pledged themselves to work for a successful outcome of the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) which many of them propose to attend.
66. Heads of Government welcomed as important contributions to the UNCED process the Report of the Commonwealth Group of Experts Sustainable Development: An Imperative for Environmental Protection and the section on environmentally sustainable development of the Communique of the First Commonwealth NGO Forum held in Harare in August 1991.
67. Heads of Government agreed to work actively towards the conclusion at UNCED of an effective framework convention on climate change, of a convention on biological diversity, of a statement of principles for a global consensus on the management, conservation and sustainable development of all types of forest, and appropriate follow-up action thereafter. They agreed that action to tackle these problems would require the participation of all countries. They attached particular importance to achieving consensus on measures to facilitate additional flows of financial resources and environmentally sound and appropriate technologies on fair and favourable terms to developing countries, as a contribution towards the achievement of both national and global environmental and developmental goals. They undertook to co-operate closely in elaborating a realistic and achievable action programme under Agenda 21, which should take account of the different needs, responsibilities and capabilities of developed and developing countries and address action at national, regional and international levels. In all these areas, they stressed the need for effective, democratic and cost-effective institutional arrangements at all levels to deliver the actions agreed at UNCED.
68. Heads of Government took note of the concerns expressed by
small states about the adverse consequences for them of climate change, their vulnerability, and the belief that their interests were not receiving adequate attention in the UNCED preparatory process. They agreed that the concerns of these countries should

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be reflected, as appropriate, in all UNCED's decisions and asked the Commonwealth Secretariat to assist in promoting more effective consideration of the interests of Commonwealth small states by organizing consultations and providing them with technical support at important preparatory meetings for UNCED.
69. Heads of Government welcomed the decision that key elements relating to women's critical contributions to sustainable development should be addressed at UNCED as a distinct issue and in the course of all the substantive work, particularly the proposed action programme under Agenda 21. They believed that greater recognition should be given to the vital role played by women in fostering sustainable development and to the need to alleviate the constraints which prevented them from making more effective contributions to environmental management at all levels.
70. Heads of Government also took note of a number of proposals on the environment and related problems. These included a convention to control dumping of hazardous, toxic and other wastes from ships; measures to protect small island countries against sea-level rise; entrusting the United Nations Trusteeship Council to hold in trust for humanity its common heritage and its common concerns; the setting up of an international environmental tribunal; and the adoption of a code of conduct governing international environmental behaviour.
71. Heads of Government expressed concern at the continuation of large-scale drift-net fishing and the threat this posed to marine resources. They urged all countries to comply with United Nations General Assembly Resolutions C4/22S and 45/197 and welcomed the prohibition of fishing with long drift-nets in the South Pacific.
Natural Disasters
72. Heads of Government acknowledged the adverse impact of natural disasters on economic growth and development. They welcomed the increasing international attention given to problems posed by disasters and urged better national preparedness and relief measures; the strengthening of international mechanisms with a view to providing timely, adequate and co-ordinated assistance; and the devotion of greater attention to the medium-term implications of disasters in the lending policies of the international financial institutions.
Commonwealth-Government of Guyana Programme for sustainable Tropical Forestry
73. Heads of Government welcomed progress already made in implementing the Commonwealth-Government of Guyana Programme for. Sustainable Tropical Forestry in pursuance of the offer of the President of Guyana to set aside an area of tropical forest for a pilot project, under Commonwealth auspices, on sustainable utilization and conservation of species. They were pleased at the Commonwealth role being played in this important international project. They were encouraged that several

governments, agencies, institutions and non-governmental organisations, inside and outside the Commonwealth, had expressed interest in the Programme, and, looked forward, in particular to early final approval of initial funding for it by the Global Environment Facility. Considering that the Programme had significant potential to benefit the wider international community, they urged all potential donors to mobilize additional resources to facilitate its early implementation. They called on all Commonwealth countries to give urgent consideration to providing further financial and other support to the Programme in order that the Commonwealth could continue to play a major role in it.
Management of Tropical Marine Ecosystems
74. Heads of Government welcomed the Australian Government's initiative to make available its expertise in managing tropical marine environments to assist its Commonwealth partners and other tropical and sub-tropical states in managing these environments.
Women and Structural Adjustment
75. Heads of Government endorsed the Ottawa Declaration on Women' and Structural Adjustment which Ministers Responsible for women" a Affairs prepared at their meeting in October 1990. The Declaration is attached as an Annex to this Communique.
Child Survival and Development
76. Heads of Government welcomed the Plan of Action for Survival, Protection and Development of Children in the 1990s adopted by the World Summit for Children and committed themselves to the achievement of it goals. These included targeted reduction of infant and maternal mortality; the achievement of health and education for all by the year 2000; sustaining and improving immunization levels; and ratification and implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. They stressed that these specific actions for children should be pursued as an essential part of wider national and international development objectives including poverty alleviation, human development and environmental protection. They emphasized that the Commonwealth provided a framework for collaboration to put children first, particularly through cooperation programmes devised to enhance health and literacy levels among children.
77. Heads of Government noted with interest the call by the Organisation of African Unity for the convening of an international donors' conference on assistance to African children in 1992.

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Commonwealth Non-Governmental organisations
78. Heads of Government noted' the valuable contribution which private individuals, private associations and voluntary bodies of many kinds make to the Commonwealth's well-being. They welcomed the consideration by business groups throughout the Commonwealth of the possibility of establishing a Commonwealth Association of Business Organisations which they thought could help to develop the trade of Commonwealth countries and facilitate their promotion of investment and transfer of technology. Recognising the valuable role played by centres of research and study of Commonwealth affairs, such as the institute of Commonwealth Studies in London, they welcomed a proposal to establish a Commonwealth Issues Research Network to promote research and information exchanges by academics throughout the Commonwealth on subjects of importance to it.
79. Heads of Government expressed their continuing support for the work of the Commonwealth Trade Union Council and looked forward to the further development of co-operation between the Secretariat and the CTUC.
Next Meeting
80. Heads of Government accepted with great pleasure the invitation from the Government of Cyprus to hold their next Meeting in Cyprus in 1993.


1. Heads of Government re-emphasized their commitment to Commonwealth Functional Co-operation which occupies a central place in the asaociation's joint endeavours. They expressed satiafaction with the substantial progress that had been made in various areas of activity under the aegis of the Commonwealth Fund for Technical Co-operation and other Commonwealth Organisations. They agreed that the functional activities of the Commonwealth should reflect the priorities identified in the Harare Commonwealth Declaration.
Commonwealth Fund for Technical Co-operation

2. In reviewing the Commonwealth Fund for Technical Cooperation Heads of Government underlined the importance they attach to the role of the Fund as the operational arm of the Secretariat and the pre-eminent Commonwealth agency for development co-operation. They noted the expansion of CFTC programme services in the two years since their meeting in Kuala Lumpur, and recommended that governments maintain and if possible expand their contributions to the Fund to ensure that it has the capacity to maintain this level of service to governments and is in a position to respond to Commonwealth priorities identified in the Harare Declaration.
Commonwealth Sport

3. Heads of Government endorsed the Report of the Working Party on Strengthening Commonwealth Sport and stressed the special role which sport should' play in fostering Commonwealth values particularly in the younger generations. They also welcomed sports development programmes designed to reduce the disparities in available sports facilities and infrastructure between developing and developed countries.

4. Concerned to ensure the strengthening of the Commonwealth Games as a cornerstone of the Commonwealth, Heads of Government called on member governments to make the Commonwealth Games Federation financially self-sufficient and able further to promote the Games and Commonwealth sport generally. To sustain the important role accorded Commonwealth sport by Heads of Government, they requested the Secretary-General to establish an ad hoc committee for a period of four years, with a membership and mandate broadly reflecting those of the working Party which would meet biennially on the occasion of the Federation's General Assembly. They expressed the hope that in future the hosting of the Games would be shared mors equitably among member countries while ensuring that proper standards prevail.
Women and Development: Commonwealth Plan of Action

5. Heads of Government reaffirmed their commitment to the advancement of women, and more particularly to the Plan of Action on Women and Development and its- implementation through national

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and Secretariat initiatives. They welcomed the Secretary-
General's Report on the Progress achieved by both national
governments and the Secretariat, but recognized that much more
remained to be done. reads of Governmental emphasized that the
if the objectives of the plan of the Action were to be realized, and
all members governments should make this a matter of the highest
priority. They urged member government to enhance the
effectiveness and influence on policy of national women’s
bureau, to provide training on gender issues to senior policy
makers and planners, and to make the development planning process
sensitive to gender considerations. They asked that opportunities
for women to work at policy-making levels within National Civil
services and within the Secretariat should be increased through
purposeful action

Youth Affairs

6. Heads of Government, notes that the Review of the
Commonwealth Youth Programmed structure and activities had been
completed in 1990 and that the Commonwealth Youth Affairs Council
(CYAC) had approved the necessary changes to the programme and
its style of work. They enjoined governments to continue to
support the programme financially, and agreed that the CYAC's
biennial meetings should henceforward be designated as
Ministerial Meetings, but held on a triennial basis beginning in

Scientific Co-Operation

7. Reads of Government noted that Commonwealth Ministers
Responsible for Science and Technology had met for the first time
in malta in November 1990 and had expressed the wish to meet on a
regular basis in future, They acknowledged the important rols
that such meetings, together with the regular work of the
Commonwealth Science Council, could play in enhancing
Commonwealth Scientific co-operation, promoting new initiatives
and identifying resources for major programmes in science and
technology in the Commonwealth. They agreed that ministerial
meetings should be held in future on an hoc basis in Cases
where the issues involved so warranted

Management of Technological Change

8. Reads of Government expressed satisfaction at the
establishment of the Commonwealth Consultative Group on
Technology Management, a proposal which they had endorsed at
their previous meetings. They commended the way in which the Group
was undertaking its task of advising governments on technology
transfer, adaptation and management, and their integrating with
economic and environmental policies. In view of the fact that
demand for these services was expanding and already exceeded
existing resource provision, they requested member governments to
give serious consideration to increasing the Group's resource or
to financing projects or programmes that the Consultative Group
might propose
Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking
9. Heads of Government asked the Secretariat, in close collaboration with the new UN Programme and other relevant agencies including regional organisations, to continue to organise appropriate training and other activities to counter aspects of both supply and demand and to reflect the specific perspectives of the community, In particular of women and young people, in its work. They welcomed the agreement reached at the Commonwealth Law Ministers Meeting in Christchurch in 1990 whereby Commonwealth extradition arrangements could be streamlined, and urged Commonwealth members who had not yet done so to give early consideration to the adoption of the new optional procedures.
10. Heads of Government expressed grave concern at the growing impact of AIDS on all countries. This posed a threat to economic progress and human development, particularly in poorer member states, by attacking the most economically productive age group and reversing gains in life expectancy and child survival. The increasing burden on health budgets would stretch national and community resources to the limit, leaving no room for complacency or pretence about the magnitude of the problem. Heads of Government urged all governments to make AIDS prevention a matter of compelling priority, mobilizing all relevant resources and sectors to prevent AIDS and to mitigate its socio-economic impact. Measures were required inter alia to develop strong multisectoral national AIDS programmes that would promote education and behaviour change and support action for safer sexual behaviour; combat stigmatization and discrimination against people with known or suspected HIV infection; ensure the safety of blood and blood products; and co-operate more affectively' with scientists in developing vaccines and drugs needed for prevention and therapy. Heads of Government requested Commonwealth Ministers of Health at their annual pra-WHA Meeting to review the matter regularly and keep them informed. They also asked the Secretariat to promote such schemes of Commonwealth co-operation as were practicable in furtherance of these objectives.
Rights of the Disabled
11. Heads of Government noted that there were millions of disabled persons in the world, the majority in developing countries, most of whom faced barriers to education and training, employment, transportation and communications. They welcomed the change in social attitudes towards the disabled fostered by the United Nations Decade of Disabled Persons (1983-92), and agreed to continue to promote measures in their own countries to enable disabled persons to contribute to economic and social life. They asked the Secretariat to keep the matter under review with a view to collating and disseminating information on existing national programmes.

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Favourable Fee Regime for Commonwealth Students
12. Heads of Government affirmed the fundamental importance of enhanced student mobility for Commonwealth cohesion and for the future of the Commonwealth itself. Enhanced interchange would bring positive benefits for individuals, for educational institutions and for Commonwealth countries themselves. They noted the proposals made by the Secretary-General on the possibility of a favourable fee regime for Commonwealth students with its five main elements of the establishment of an acceptable basis for computation of fees, fee reductions for postgraduate students, expanded scholarship provision, tuition fee scholarships and reciprocal arrangements for fee remission. Acknowledging the divergence of views on the moat appropriate measures to be taken, and the requests by some countries for more time to study the implications in more detail, Heads of Government agreed that representatives of interested governments and the Standing Committee on Student Mobility and Higher Education Co-operation should meet early in 1992 to examine the proposals made by the Secretary-General, the policy and operational approaches of developed host countries, and any other proposed measures, with a view to reaching agreement on means of enhancing student mobility in the Commonwealth. They hoped this meeting would be sensitive to the views of many developing member countries on this question.
Commonwealth Higher Education Support Scbeme
13. Heads of Government welcomed the establishment of the Commonwealth Higher Education Support Scheme (CHESS) but noted that only limited progress had been made in developing co-operative projects. To realize the considerable potential of the Scheme for strengthening higher educational quality would require an assured flow of resources from industrialized countries in support of developing countries1 own efforts. Heads of Government accordingly urged member countries to make the necessary forward commitments that would permit developing countries to proceed with confidence in preparing and submitting project and programme proposals for funding under CHESS. It would then be possible for the Commonwealth Standing Committee on Student Mobility and Higher Education Co-operation at its next meeting to consider with donor agencies suitable mechanisms and procedures for inviting requests and channelling funds.
The commonwealth of Learning
14. Heads of Government noted with satisfaction the remarkable progress made by The Commonwealth of Learning since the last masting of Heads of Government in Kuala Lumpur, and the impressive strides it had taken towards widening educational access and raising educational quality through distance education. They commended the Board, the President and staff of The Commonwealth of Learning on the achievements to data, and on the contribution which the organisation had already begun to make to human resource development in several Commonwealth countries. They welcomed the new pledges made and urged all member countries to pledge additional financial support as soon as possible, to

enable the organisation to develop and expand its services.
Commoneealth Foundation
15. Heads of Government congratulated the Foundation on its'25th Anniversary in 1991. They welcomed the constructive proposals made at the First Commonwealth NGO Forum for NGO-government linkages, NGO collaboration, and the strengthening of NGOs in post-apartheid South Africa. In response to requests by the NGOs present for additional support to cover technical assistance, training, exchanges and regional meetings, they asked the Foundation to proceed to develop such a programme of assistance.
16. Heads of Government expressed satisfaction at the increasing number and range of professional associations, and endorsed recommendations for organizational development, exchange and information-sharing among Commonwealth professionals from the Sydney Conference of Professionals. They commended the proposals of the expert group on culture and accepted the Foundation's plan to introduce a Commonwealth culture desk within existing resources. They believed that more appropriate budgetary procedures were necessary. They invited the Board of Governors to review the position, with a view inter alia to ensuring that budgetary questions were no longer taken at Commonwealth Heads of Government Meetings, and to report to the 1992 Senior Officials Meeting. As an interim measure, they recommended a 5 per cent increase for the financial year 1992/93.
17. Heads of Government expressed their appreciation for the services of the retiring Chairman of the Commonwealth Foundation, the Hon. Robert Stanfield and unanimously elected the Rt. Hon. Sir Richard Luce as his successor with effect from 1 January 1992.
Contribution to Commonwealth Budgets
18. Heads of Government welcomed the progress made in reducing the arrears of contributions to Commonwealth budgets, but felt it necessary to draw attention to the importance of eliminating arrears as soon as possible. They also recognized that prompt payment of current contributions was necessary to avoid adverse effects on Commonwealth activities. They welcomed the Secretary-General's intention to hold discussions with the Governments in arrears with a view to agreeing an appropriate schedule of payments and asked Senior Officials to review the position again at their meeting in Kampala, Uganda in 1992.
Commonwealth Institute
19. Heads of Government noted the priority given by the Commonwealth Institute to promoting the ideals and activities of the Commonwealth and its member countries among young people. They particularly welcomed the Institute's new focus on the Commonwealth and Europe, designed to ensure that Commonwealth concerns were better understood throughout Europe.

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Report of the Secretary-General
20 Heads of Government received with appreciation the Thirteenth Report of the Secretary-General and commanded the record of action outlined in the Report.
Harare International Conference Centre 21 October 1991

Submitted by the Third Matting of Commonwealth Ministers
Responsible for Women's Affairs
Ottawa, Canada, 9-12 October 1990
1. We, the Heads of Government of the Commonwealth, believe that the challenges created by the changing world economic environment must be met through sound, equitable and effective adjustment policies at both national and international levels. These policies are vital for achieving the non-inflationary economic growth and sustainable development necessary to enhance human well-being. We endorse the broader approach to adjustment set out in the Commonwealth Expert Group's Report, 'Engendering Adjustment for the 1990s', including its three general principles of an emphasis on social equity and economic growth as well as efficiency; full integration of women into the decision-making processes; and a supportive international environment.
2. We appreciate the determined efforts being made by many governments, inside and outside the Commonwealth, to reform both policies and institutions. Moves towards the creation of a more supportive global economic environment are also greatly valued. But we accept, too, that much more needs to be done if women are to regain the advances they lost in the 1980s partly as a result of inappropriate structural adjustment policies.
3. We are convinced that it is both essential and possible to 'design and implement policies and programmes that will improve the effectiveness, acceptability and attainability of adjustment efforts. Structural adjustment cannot be sustained, development will be limited and the costs of adjustment will continue to be borne disproportionately by women unless such policies and programmes fully integrate measures to ensure gender equity, greater concern for basic human needs and protection of the physical environment, and are adequately financed.
4. The full potential of the development process can only be reached if its economic and social aspects, including poverty reduction, are recognized as mutually supportive. It is especially important that .programmes in primary health care, nutrition, family planning and education and training are not impaired. Greater advances for woman in these areas must be maintained. Investment in the nutrition, health and education of a country's population is as crucial to the development of its economy and the well-being of its people as is any investment in physical capital.
5. The structural adjustment process provides important opportunities to re-evaluate the ways in which women and men from all parts of society can best contribute to and benefit

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from economic and social development. As compared to man, there are considerably mora complex demands on women's time from their multiple rolus as economic producers, mothers and caregivers, household managers and community organizers.
6. Adjustment programmes must be designed to ensure a mora equitable sharing between women and men not only of the programmers’ costs but also of the rewards and benefits accruing. It is only in this way that women's active participation and wide-ranging contributions to the economy - too often unrecognized because unpaid - can be brought into the process.
7. Therefore, we commit our governments and commend to others the following programme of action:
(i) To reform social, administrative and legal structures to give women full and effective rights to land, finance and other resources. Such reforms will remove barriers to woman's ability to participate in, contribute to and benefit from productive activity in a market economy.
(ii) To invest in enhancing woman's productive activities, especially in key areas such as enterprise development, agricultural production and food security. Improved access to appropriate technologies, extension services, transportation and training can increase productivity for women's own benefit and that of the economy as a whole.
(iii)To ensure that incentives to participate in new opportunities and growth sectors do reach woman, and that market structures are created which are as open to women as they are to men. Particular support will be provided where necessary to enable women to take advantage of more open and competitive markets, including greater access to and more flexible and innovative terms of credit.
(iv) To ensure that public policy and expenditures are conducive to the provision of basic goods and services to support women's multiple activities. Increased public expenditure on nutrition, education and health programmes that support women is vital in ensuring they have time to make use of new productive capacity and respond to new market incentives. This is necessary for long-run human resource development. A particular priority is to increase access to schooling for girls. This will have positive effects on child health and survival, population growth rates, family wall-being and economic productivity. Such emphases must be embodied in programmes that are accountable to women and responsive to their needs.
(v) To integrate women's interests more consistently into public policy, including the design and implementation of structural adjustment policies, through) increasing gender awareness throughout government; ensuring the full involvement of women in decision-making and operational processes at all levels; enhancing the capacity of woman's bureau to contribute effectively to economic analysis and project appraisal; encouraging effective

channels for women and woman'a organisations to express their perspectives and concerns; and establishing steering committals within Ministries of Finance to ansure that gender isaues are incorporated into all decisions relating to structural adjustment.
(vi)To improve the collection of data - quantitative and qualitative - and the development of methods and statistical indicators, globally and nationally, that could provide a better understanding of the economic activity of both women and men, and the consequent impact by gander of specific policies, paying particular attention to the possibility of differential impacts within households.
(vii)To encourage the international organisations of which we are members to join us in our endeavour to fully integrate the goal of equity between women and men in the structural adjustment process, to ensure that structural adjustment programmes are growth oriented, more long term, batter financed, take account of measures necessary to ameliorate negative social impact, and, in all other ways, including improving market access for developing country exports and increasing external resource flows, to promote a mora favourable international economic environment.

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