Implementation of the World Programme of Action concerning Disabled Persons and the United Nations Decade of Disabled Persons : resolution / adopted by the General Assembly.
|UN Document Symbol||A/RES/44/70|
|Convention||Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities|
|Subjects||Manpower Development, Least Developed Countries, Persons with Disabilities, Equal Opportunity, Disability Prevention, Rehabilitation, Living Conditions, Retirement, Ageing Persons, Employment, Non-Governmental Organizations|
VI. Resolutions adopted on the reports of the Third Committee
by the international community and, in particular, further action by the Security Council in accordance with Chapter VII of the Charter,
Underlining that ratification of or accession to the Convention on a universal basis and the implementation of its provisions without any delay are necessary for its effectiveness and will therefore contribute to the eradication of the crime of apartheid,
1. Takes note of the report of the Secretary-General on the status of the International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid;63
2. Commends those States parties to the Convention that have submitted their reports under article VII thereof;
3. Appeals once again to those States that have not yet done so to ratify or to accede to the Convention without further delay, in particular those States that have jurisdiction over transnational corporations operating in South Africa and Namibia and without whose co-operation such operations could not be halted;
4. Underlines the importance of the universal ratification of the Convention, which would be an effective contribution to the fulfillment of the ideals of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other human rights instruments;
5. Recalls with satisfaction the report of the Group of Three of the Commission on Human Rights,64 which was set up under the Convention, and, in particular, the conclusions and recommendations contained in that report;
6. Once again draws the attention of all States to the opinion expressed by the Group of Three in its report that transnational corporations operating in South Africa and Namibia must be considered accomplices in the crime of apartheid, in accordance with article III (b) of the Con-vention;65
7. Calls upon all States whose transnational corporations continue to do business with South Africa to take appropriate steps to terminate their dealings with South Africa;
8. Requests the Commission on Human Rights to intensify, in co-operation with the Special Committee against Apartheid, its efforts to compile periodically the progressive list of individuals, organizations, institutions and representatives of States deemed responsible for crimes enumerated in article II of the Convention, as well as those against whom or which legal proceedings have been undertaken;
9. Requests the Secretary-General to circulate that list among all States parties to the Convention and all Member States and to bring such facts to the attention of the public by all means of mass communication;
10. Also requests the Secretary-General to invite the States parties to the Convention, the specialized agencies and non-governmental organizations to provide the Commission on Human Rights with relevant information concerning the forms of the crime of apartheid, as described in article II of the Convention, committed by transnational corporations operating in South Africa;
11. Notes the importance of measures to be taken by States parties in the field of teaching and education for fuller implementation of the Convention;
65 Ibid., Para. 34.
12. Appeals to all States, United Nations organs, the specialized agencies and international and national nongovernmental organizations to step up their activities to enhance public awareness by denouncing the crimes committed by the racist regime of South Africa;
13. Requests the Secretary-General to intensify his efforts, through appropriate channels, to disseminate information on the Convention and its implementation with a view to promoting further ratification of or accession to the Convention;
14. Also requests the Secretary-General to include in his next annual report under General Assembly resolution 3380 (XXX) of 10 November 1975 a special section concerning the implementation of the Convention.
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44/70. Implementation of the World Programme of Action concerning Disabled Persons and the United Nations Decade of Disabled Persons
The General Assembly,
Recalling all its relevant resolutions, including resolution 37/52 of 3 December 1982, by which it adopted the World Programme of Action concerning Disabled Persons,50 and resolution 37/53 of 3 December 1982, in which, inter alia, it proclaimed the period 1983-1992 the United Nations Decade of Disabled Persons,
Recalling also its resolution 43/98 of 8 December 1988, and reaffirming all of the relevant provisions contained therein, in particular the list of priorities for global activities and programmes during the second half of the United Nations Decade of Disabled Persons set forth in the annex to the resolution,
Taking note of Economic and Social Council resolution 1989/52 of 24 May 1989, in which the Council, inter alia, urged Member States, bodies and organizations of the United Nations system and intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations to provide all possible sup-port to the awareness and fund-raising campaigns to give added momentum to the Decade,
Noting the important work currently being undertaken by the Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities on human rights and disability, which could serve as a useful basis for the continued efforts to ensure for disabled persons the enjoyment of hu-man rights and fundamental freedoms,
Taking into account the concrete measures already carried out by the Governments of Member States, the bodies and organizations of the United Nations system and nongovernmental organizations to implement the objectives of the World Programme of Action within the framework of the Decade, and recognizing that much more should be done at all levels to improve the living conditions of persons with disabilities,
Mindful that Member States bear the ultimate responsibility for the implementation of the World Programme of Action and that national disability committees or similar co-ordinating bodies play a crucial role in this regard,
Recognizing the pivotal role of the United Nations in promoting the exchange of information, experience and expertise and closer regional and interregional cooperation towards more effective strategies and policies to advance the status and welfare of persons with disabilities.
Stressing that the Centre for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs of the Secretariat is the focal point
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within the United Nations for the implementation and monitoring of the World Programme of Action,
Noting with satisfaction the strengthening of the Disabled Persons Unit of the Centre through the generous financial support of some Governments,
Concerned that the Voluntary Fund for the United Nations Decade of Disabled Persons continues to suffer from a lack of sufficient contributions and that, unless this declining trend is reversed and the resource capacities of the Fund are strengthened, many priority requests may not be met and the implementation of the World Programme of Action will be seriously affected,
Mindful that, since developing countries are experiencing difficulties in mobilizing resources, international cooperation should be encouraged to assist in national efforts to implement the World Programme of Action and the objectives of the Decade,
Noting that the International Meeting on Human Resources in the Field of Disability was held at Tallinn, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, from 14 to 22 August 1989 and that it adopted a nine-point strategy to promote the participation, training and employment of disabled persons, especially in developing countries,
Having considered the report of the Secretary-General,66
1. Reaffirms the validity of the World Programme of Action concerning Disabled Persons;
2. Reiterates that for the second half of the United Nations Decade of Disabled Persons special emphasis should be placed on the equalization of opportunities for disabled persons;
3. Urges Member States, intergovernmental organizations and non-governmental organizations concerned to translate into action at all levels, as appropriate, the priorities for global activities and programmes during the second half of the Decade, such as those set forth in the annex to General Assembly resolution 43/98;
4. Renews its invitation to all States to give high priority to projects concerning the prevention of disabilities, rehabilitation and the equalization of opportunities for disabled persons within the framework of bilateral assistance, as well as financial support to strengthen organizations of disabled persons;
5. Invites Governments to participate actively in the international co-operation with a view to improving the living conditions of disabled persons by encouraging professional experts, in particular disabled persons, in various aspects of rehabilitation and the equalization of opportunity, including the expertise of retired persons;
6. Requests the Secretary-General to assist Member States in establishing and strengthening national committees on disability issues and similar co-ordinating bodies and to promote and support the establishment of strong national organizations of disabled persons;
7. Also requests the Secretary-General to encourage all organs and bodies of the United Nations, including regional commissions, international organizations and specialized agencies, to take into account in their programmes and operational activities the specific needs of disabled persons;
8. Invites the Secretary-General, in connection with the feasibility study on the substantive, financial and administrative implications of alternative ways to mark the end of the Decade in 1992, called for by the General Assembly in its resolution 43/98, to request Member States,
in consultation with organizations of disabled persons, to submit their comments to him by 28 February 1990 for inclusion in the background document to be discussed at the meeting of experts to be held at Helsinki in May 1990;
9. Requests the Secretary-General to strengthen the regional commissions to enable them to promote technical
co-operation activities and the sharing of national resources for personnel training, the exchange of information, policy and programme development and research and the participation of disabled persons;
10. Invites the Secretary-General and Member States to involve disabled persons to a greater extent in United Nations programmes and activities, including the provision of employment opportunities, and to give particular attention to improving the situation of special groups as outlined in the World Programme of Action, emphasizing the need for social justice and the participation of these groups in each sector of the society;
11. Invites the Centre for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs of the Secretariat to expand its close collaboration with intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations active in the field of disability, in particular organizations of disabled persons, and to consult with them on a regular and systematic basis on matters relating to the implementation of the World Programme of Action, with a view to ensuring that the results of the Decade become meaningful and lasting;
12. Notes with satisfaction the progress made by the office of the Special Representative for the Promotion of the United Nations Decade of Disabled Persons;67
13. Calls upon Member States, national committees, the United Nations system and non-governmental organizations, especially organizations of disabled persons, to assist in a global information and fund-raising campaign to publicize the Decade through all appropriate means;
14. Recognizes the important role of nongovernmental organizations, especially those representing persons with disabilities, in the effective implementation of the World Programme of Action, in raising international awareness of the concerns of persons with disabilities and in monitoring and evaluating progress achieved during the Decade;
15. Requests the Secretary-General to ensure that contributions, in cash or in kind, related to the Decade are channelled into the Voluntary Fund for the United Nations Decade of Disabled Persons, while giving donors the option of earmarking contributions for special purposes;
16. Reaffirms that the resources of the Voluntary Fund should be used to support catalytic and innovative activities in order to implement further the objectives of the World Programme of Action within the framework of the Decade, with priority given, as appropriate, to programmes and projects of the least developed countries;
17. Invites Governments and non-governmental organizations to continue their contributions to the Voluntary Fund, and calls upon Governments and nongovernmental organizations that have not yet done so to consider contributing to the Voluntary Fund so as to enable it to respond effectively to the growing demand for assistance;
18. Requests the Secretary-General to bring the Tallinn Guidelines for Action on Human Resources Development in the Field of Disability, the text of which is annexed to the present resolution, to the attention of Member States, national co-ordinating mechanisms in the
[bid., paras. 50 and 51
VI. Resolutions adopted on the reports of the Third Committee
field of disability, organizations of the United Nations system, other intergovernmental bodies and nongovernmental organizations concerned with disabilities;
19. Requests the Secretary-General to report to the General Assembly at its forty-fifth session on the implementation of the present resolution;
20. Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its forty-fifth session the item entitled "Implementation of the World Programme of Action concerning Disabled Persons and the United Nations Decade of Disabled Persons".
78th plenary meeting 8 December 1989
Tallinn Guidelines for Action on Human Resources Development in the Field of Disability
1. The International Meeting on Human Resources in the Field of Disability, convened at Tallinn, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, from 14 to 22 August 1989, having considered the situation of human resources development in the field of disability, particularly in developing countries, firmly believes that it is necessary to reinforce existing activities, as well as to undertake new and innovative ones, in order to promote the further development and continued progress of disabled persons.
2. Following the adoption of the World Programme of Action concerning Disabled Persons by the General Assembly, in its resolution 37/52 of 3 December 1982, there has been a growing need for higher priority to be given to the development of the human resources of disabled persons, with specific reference to education and training, employment, and science and technology. In this connection, the General Assembly, in its resolution 37/53 of 3 December 1982, proclaimed the period 1983-1992 the United Nations Decade of Disabled Persons, encouraging Member States to utilize that period as one of the means to implement the World Programme of Action.
3. The main objectives of the World Programme of Action are to promote effective measures for the prevention of disability, for rehabilitation and for the realization of the goals of full participation and equality for persons with disabilities. To accomplish these goals, due regard must be paid to education, training and work opportunities.
4. While it is acknowledged that the living conditions of the general population in developing countries urgently need to be improved, the ob-jectives of the World Programme of Action call for the situation of disabled persons to be given special attention during the remainder of the Decade and beyond. Effective implementation of the World Programme of Action will make an important contribution to the process of develop-ment of societies through the mobilization of more human resources.
5. While it is also acknowledged that a number of countries have already initiated or carried out activities within the framework of the World Programme of Action, further concerted efforts should be made to integrate the human resources development of disabled persons into intersectoral planning at the national level.
6. Human resources development is a process centered on the human person that seeks to realize the full potential and capabilities of human beings. This process is fundamental to the concept of equalization of opportunities, in keeping with the goals of the World Programme of Action.
7. Through human resources development, disabled persons are able effectively to exercise their rights of full citizenship. As full citizens, they have the same rights and responsibilities as other members of society, including the right to life, as declared in international human rights instruments. They also have the same choices as other citizens in the social, cultural, economic and political life of their communities.
8. Because persons with disabilities are agents of their own destiny rather than objects of care, Governments and organizations need to reflect this perception in their policies and programmes. This means that disabled persons, as individuals and as members of organizations, should be involved in the decision-making process as equal partners.
9. The abilities of disabled persons and their families should be strengthened through community-based supplementary services provided by Governments and non-governmental organizations. These services should promote self-determination and enable disabled persons to
participate in the development of society. Governments should recognize and support the role of organizations of disabled persons in enabling
those persons to take charge of their own lives.
A. Participation of persons with disabilities
10. A statutory basis is required to enable disabled persons to participate as full citizens in decision-making at all levels of the planning, im-plementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmes.
11. To facilitate the full participation of disabled persons and to enable them to exercise their rights as citizens, access to information is essential To this end, all information has to be adapted to appropriate formats. These information formats may include Braille script, large print, audio-visual media and sign-language interpretation. Information channels should include television, radio, newspapers and postal services. Governments should work with organizations of disabled persons to identify appropriate information formats and channels to reach disabled citizens.
12. Governments should adopt, enforce and fund legally binding standards and regulations to improve access for persons with disabilities, ensuring that buildings, streets, and road, sea and air transport are barrier-free, architecturally and in all other ways. Communication systems and security and safety measures should be developed and adapted to meet the needs of disabled citizens.
1 3. To facilitate the recruitment of disabled persons and to assist private-sector industries in hiring them, organizations at the national, regional and international levels, including the United Nations, should identify and maintain listings of qualified disabled candidates.
B. Strengthening of grass-roots initiatives
14. Local community initiatives should be especially promoted. Disabled persons and their families should be encouraged to form grassroots organizations, with governmental recognition of their importance and governmental support in the form of financing and training.
15. Governmental and non-governmental organizations concerned with disability issues should allow disabled persons to participate as equal partners.
16. The efficient functioning of governmental and non-governmental organizations concerned with disability calls for training in organiza-tional and management skills
C. Promotion of an integrated approach
17. Overall national policy frameworks with supporting legislation should be developed.
18. The essence of an integrated approach is the inclusion of disability issues in all government ministries and at every level of governmental policy and planning. National co-ordination bodies, with linkages at the local, regional and interregional levels, should be established or strength-ened. The membership of those bodies should include all government ministries, legislative committees and non-governmental organizations, particularly organizations of disabled persons. Those bodies should review existing policies, plans and programmes, identify existing and projected resources and monitor and evaluate the implementation of national policies.
19. National development programmes should include disability components.
20. Disabled women should be included in the existing national and regional programmes aimed at women.
21. At the level of service delivery, an integrated approach entails cooperation and referral among professionals working in organizational settings that provide educational, vocational, health and social services.
D. Promotion of education and training
22. The early years are critical in the overall development of a disabled child and for the fostering of positive attitudes towards the child. Specific programmes and training materials should be developed to address these needs during the formative infant and pre-school years.
23. Education at the primary, secondary and higher levels should be available to disabled persons within the regular educational system and
General AssemblyForty-fourth Session
in regular school settings, as well as in vocational training programmes. When such education is provided to deaf students, teachers and/or inter-preters who are proficient in the indigenous sign language must be provided.
24. Special education programmes and schools that promote the indigenous sign language and the indigenous deaf culture must be available to deaf people. Deaf people should be employed in such programmes and schools.
25. Cost-effective alternatives to segregated school facilities should be developed and implemented by Governments at the national and local levels. These alternatives include special education teachers as consultants to regular education teachers, resource rooms with specialized per-sonnel and materials, special classrooms in regular schools and interpreters for deaf students.
26. The education of disabled children should involve the cooperation and concerted efforts of health and social services, as well as of teachers and parents. It should provide support measures, such as technical aids, especially adapted pedagogical approaches, and incentives for teachers.
27. The content and quality of education and training should ensure the acquisition of skills that are economically viable and that provide op-portunities for work. Career education and vocational training programmes should be available to ensure the transition of disabled students into the economic mainstream.
28. In addition to being offered formal skills training and education, disabled persons should be offered training in social and self-help skills to prepare them for independent living. Special efforts should be made to promote education and skills training for disabled girls and women, in both urban and rural areas.
29. General teacher-training curricula should include a course of study in skills for teaching disabled children and young persons in regular schools.
30. Each Government should have a national plan for training and employing an adequate number of health, education and vocational professionals in rehabilitation. Persons with disabilities should be recruited for such training and employment.
31. In fields such as education, labour, health and social services, law, architecture and technical development, which are often involved in the different aspects of rehabilitation, professional training should include training on the rights and needs of disabled people. Professionals in these fields should also be made aware of the resources available for disabled persons so that appropriate referrals can be made or services pro-vided.
32. Appropriate technology should be considered essential for the utilization of available resources. This may include simple, universally available equipment, as well as computer technology.
E. Promotion of employment
33. Disabled persons have the right to be trained for and to work on equal terms in the regular labour force. Community-based rehabilitation programmes should be encouraged to provide better job opportunities in developing countries. Use should be made of the vocational services, guidance and training, placement, employment and related services that already exist for workers in general. On-the-job training may be more ef-fective than conventional training.
34. General development programmes that provide loans, training and equipment for income-generating activities should include disabled persons.
35. Employment opportunities can be promoted, primarily, by measures relating to employment and salary standards that apply to all work-ers and, secondarily, by measures offering special support and incentives. In addition to formal employment, opportunities should be broadened to include self-employment, co-operatives and other group income-generating schemes. Where special national employment drives have been launched for youth and unemployed persons, disabled persons should be included. Disabled persons should be actively recruited, and when a disabled candidate and a non-disabled candidate are equally qualified, the disabled candidate should be chosen.
36. Organizations of employers and of workers should adopt, in cooperation with organizations of disabled persons, policies that promote the training and employment of disabled persons, including women, and non-disabled persons on an equal basis.
37. Policies for affirmative action should be formulated and implemented to increase the employment of disabled women. Governments
and non-governmental organizations should support the creation of income-generating projects involving disabled women.
F. Provisions for funding
38. In general, funding should be allocated through regular sectoral budgeting systems. A national rehabilitation fund may be established to facilitate the employment or self-employment of disabled persons. This fund could be used to cover the costs of training, equipment and initial capital outlay
39. Similarly, funds should be established for loans to small-scale pi lot projects at the grass-roots level; such funds could be administered locally with the use of simple procedures.
G. Promotion of community awareness
40. To increase community understanding of the rights, needs and potentials of disabled persons, collaborative efforts with disabled persons and their organizations are required to develop and promote a flow of information using mass media, especially film, television, radio and print media. In particular, information for disabled persons and their families on all aspects of living with a disability should be as clear and uncomplicated as possible
41. Community awareness programmes should include specific strategies for the prevention of disability. Government efforts aimed at early identification, intervention and prevention should be strengthened through community awareness and community involvement in pro grammas on disability.
42. Persons with mental disabilities (mental retardation or mental illness) or multiple disabilities are among the most stigmatized groups of citizens. They have the right to make choices, take risks, control their own lives and live in the community. Their adult status, abilities and as-pirations must be respected and reinforced by their inclusion in decision making, although many may need individual advocacy to be clearly understood.
43. It should be acknowledged that people with mental and multiple disabilities benefit from education, skills training and work opportunities. For many of these people, opportunities need to be individualized Support is required to help them and their families to establish and main tain a positive life-style.
44. The World Programme of Action should be translated into all national languages, through governmental action. Braille, large print and simplified versions should also be made available by the appropriate media to ensure as wide a distribution as possible to all citizens, including disabled persons, their families and non-governmental and governmental organizations.
H. Improving the methodology for human resources development
45. Policies and programmes for human resources development con cerning disabled persons should be based on an assessment of their needs and resources as well as on the potential of existing development programmes and services to meet those needs. The implementation of such policies and programmes should be periodically monitored, with adjust ments made to ensure effective implementation.
46. Evaluation should be built into programmes at the planning stage so that their overall efficacy in fulfilling policy objectives can be as sessed. Persons with disabilities should play an active role in developing the criteria for monitoring and evaluation.
47. Increased attention should be given to services for people with hearing, speech, mental, intellectual or multiple disabilities.
48. The requirements of particular groups, such as disabled children, disabled women, the disabled elderly, disabled migrants and refugees, should also be recognized and met.
49. Governmental and non-governmental organizations should utilize recent developments in education through communications media, also known as distance education, which has been found to be an appropriate methodology in human resources development in the field of disability
50. The local use of appropriate technologies for producing such items as wheelchairs, prosthetic devices and mobility aids, as well as aids for hearing and seeing, should take into account the technical, socioeconomic and cultural conditions in the particular society. Each country should have a national system for the delivery of rehabilitation aids.
VI. Resolutions adopted on the reports of the Third Committee
I. Regional and international co-operation
51. Training programmes in human resources development in the field of disability should be strengthened by collaborative efforts at the re-gional and/or subregional levels. Such programmes should be coordinated through existing intergovernmental and regional organizations, including those of disabled persons.
52. International development aid projects should include a component specifically aimed at supporting organizations of disabled persons and training their members. In addition, employment opportunities should be made available to disabled individuals within these projects.
53. All international development assistance programmes directed at macro-level planning and development, such as those in agriculture or education, should include a specific component ensuring the participation of disabled persons in such programmes.
54. At both the national and interregional levels, Governments should strongly support collaboration with non-governmental agencies in specific areas of disability, to ensure co-ordination and to prevent duplication of services.
55. Linkages between organizations of disabled persons in developed and developing countries should be strengthened. This can be done through the exchange of information, training and meetings to provide forums for disabled persons to share experiences on strategic approaches. Workshops and field studies should be organized to train trainers and the management personnel of organizations of disabled persons.
56. Implementation of these Guidelines relies on effective action at the national level. This action should be supplemented by concerted efforts at the international level, particularly on the part of the United Nations and its focal point for the implementation of the World Programme of Action concerning Disabled Persons, as well as relevant United Nations organizations and specialized agencies. National and international non-governmental organizations, in particular organizations of disabled persons, should be fully involved.
44/71. International co-operation in combating organized crime
The General Assembly,
Recalling the responsibility assumed by the United Nations in the field of crime prevention and criminal justice,
Concerned that organized crime has increased in many parts of the world and has become more transnational in character, leading, in particular, to the spread of such negative phenomena as violence, terrorism, corruption and illegal trade in narcotic drugs and, in general, undermining the development process, impairing the quality of life and threatening human rights and fundamental freedoms,
Taking into account the decisions of the Seventh United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders relating to organized crime,68 as well as the views expressed on the matter by members of the Committee on Crime Prevention and Control,
Taking note of Economic and Social Council resolution 1989/70 of 24 May 1989,
Convinced of the need to strengthen international cooperation in combating organized crime,
Convinced also that the Eighth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders will, inter alia, explore the possibilities and ways of strengthening further international co-operation in combating organized crime,
Recognizing the pivotal role of the Committee on Crime Prevention and Control in providing guidance and the coordinating role to be played by the Centre for Social De-
velopment and Humanitarian Affairs of the Secretariat, especially by the Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Branch, in strengthening international co-operation in crime prevention and criminal justice,
1. Invites the Economic and Social Council to request the Committee on Crime Prevention and Control, at its eleventh session, to give special attention in its work to promoting international co-operation in combating organized crime;
2. Calls upon Governments, international organizations and interested non-governmental organizations to co-operate to that end with the Committee and to submit to the Committee, through the Secretary-General, their proposals on strengthening international co-operation in combating organized crime;
3. Requests the Committee to consider ways of strengthening international co-operation in combating organized crime, taking due account of the opinions of Governments, international organizations and nongovernmental organizations, as well as opinions expressed at and decisions taken by the Eighth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, and to submit its views, through the Economic and Social Council, to the General Assembly at its forty-seventh session.
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44/72. Crime prevention and criminal justice
The General Assembly,
Bearing in mind the responsibilities assumed by the United Nations in the field of crime prevention and criminal justice under Economic and Social Council resolution 155 C (VII) of 13 August 1948 and General Assembly resolution 415 (V) of 1 December 1950, as well as its pivotal role in the promotion of international co-operation in this field, in accordance with Assembly resolutions 3021 (XXVII) of 18 December 1972, 32/59 and 32/60 of 8 December 1977 and 35/171 of 15 December 1980,
Emphasizing the importance of its resolution 40/32 of 29 November 1985, in which it approved the Milan Plan of Action,51 adopted by consensus by the Seventh United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, as a useful and effective means of strengthening international co-operation in the field of crime prevention and criminal justice,
Recalling its resolution 41/107 of 4 December 1986, in which it invited Member States and the Secretary-General to ensure timely preparations for the Eighth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, its resolution 42/59 of 30 November 1987, in which, inter alia, it welcomed the results of the comprehensive review of the functioning and programme of work of the United Nations in the field of crime prevention and criminal justice conducted by the Secretary-General69 and approved the recommendations contained in Economic and Social Council resolutions 1986/11 of 21 May 1986 and 1987/53 of 28 May 1987, and its resolution 43/99 of 8 December 1988, in which it stressed the necessity for Member States to continue to make concerted and systematic efforts to strengthen international co-operation in crime prevention and criminal justice,
68 See Seventh United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, Milan, 26 August-6 September 1985: report prepared by the Secretariat (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.86.IV.1), chap. I, sect. E.