Record of meeting held on 5 Nov. 1980.
United Nations GENERAL ASSEMBLY THIRTY-FIFTH SESSION Official Records* THIRD COMMITTEE 45th meeting held on Wednesday, 5 November 1980 at 10.30 a.m. New York SUMMARY RECORD OF THE 45th MEETING Chairman: Mr. GAHVALOV (Bulgaria) later: Mr. NORDENFELT (Sweden) CONTENTS AGENDA ITEM 69: INTERNATIONAL YOUTH YEAR: PARTICIPATION, DEVELOPMENT, PEACE (continued) AGENDA ITEM 81: POLICIES AND PROGRAMMES RELATING TO YOUTH (continued) AGENDA ITEM 71: PROBLEMS OF THE ELDERLY AND THE AGED (continued) AGENDA ITEM 73: QUESTION OF A CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD (continued) AGENDA ITEM 79: INTERNATIONAL YEAR OF DISABLED PERSONS (continued) ACE? DA ITEM 70: PRESERVATION AND FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF CULTURAL VALUES, INCLUDING THE PROTECTION, RESTITUTION AND RETURN OF CULTURAL AND ARTISTIC PROPERTY (continued) AGENDA ITEM 68: ELIMINATION OF ALL FORMS OF RELIGIOUS INTOLERANCE (continued) AGENDA ITEM 72: HUMAN RIGHTS AND SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS (continued) AGE DA ITEM 76: INTERNATIONAL COVENANTS ON HUMAN RIGHTS (continued) (a) REPORT OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS COMMITTEE (b) FUTURE MEETINGS OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS COMMITTEE (c) STATUS OF THE INTERNATIONAL COVENANT ON ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL RIGHTS, THE INTERNATIONAL COVENANT ON CIVIL AND POLITICAL RIGHTS AND THE OPTIONAL PROTOCOL TO THE INTERNATIONAL COVENANT ON CIVIL AND. POLITICAL RIGHTS . Distr. GENERAL A/C.3/35/SR.45 11 November 1980 ORIGINAL: ENGLISH 80-57291 A/C.3/35/SR.45 English Page 2 The meeting was called to order at 10.50 a.m. AGENDA ITEM 69: INTERNATIONAL YOUTH YEAH: PARTICIPATION, DEVELOPMENT, PEACE (continued) (A/35/361 and Add.l; A/34/855: A/C.3/35/3' A/C.3/35/L.26) AGENDA ITEM 81: POLICIES AND PROGRAMMES RELATING TO YOUTH (continued) (A/35/503; A/C.3/35/3; A/C3/35/L.32) AGENDA ITD1 71: PROBLEMS OF THE ELERLY AMD THE AGED (continued) (A/35/130 and Add.l and Corr.l: A/C.3/35/8; A/C.3/35/L.28) AGENDA ITEM 73: QUESTION OF A CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD (continued) (A/C.3/35/L.14) AGENDA ITEM 79: INTERNATIONAL YEAR OF DISABLED PRESONS (continued) (A/35/274 and Add.l, A/35/291 and A/35/444 and Add.1-2; A/C.3/35/5; A/C.3/35/L.34) AGENDA ITEM 70: PRESERVATION AND FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF CULTURAL VALUES, INCLUDING THE PROTECTION, RESTITUTION AND RETURN OF CULTURAL AND ARTISTIC PROPERTY (continued) (A/35/349 and A/35/419; A/C.3/35/L.22 and A/C.3/35/L.33) AGENDA ITEM 68: ELIMINATION OF ALL FORMS OF RELIGIOUS INTOLERANCE (continued) (A/C.3/35/L.30) AGENDA ITEM 72: HUMAN RIGHTS AND SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS (continued) (A/35/202; A/C.3/35/L.27 and A/C.3/35/L.31) AGENDA ITEM 76: INTERNATIONAL COVENANTS ON HUMAN RIGHTS (continued) (A/35/65, (A/35/96, A/35/132, A/35/137 and Corr.l [English only] A/35/173, A/35/185, A/35/288, A/35/434, A/35/434 and A/35/462, A/C.3/35/L.29) (a) REPORT OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS COMMITTEE (A/35/40; A/C.3/35/4) (b) FUTURE MEFTINGS OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS COMMITTEE (A/35/417) (c) STATUS OF THE INTERNATIONAL COVENANT ON ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL RIGHTS, THE INTERNATIONAL COVENANT ON CIVIL AND POLITICAL RIGHTS AND THE OPTIONAL PROTOCOL TO THE INTERNATIONAL COVENANT ON CIVIL AND POLITICAL RIGHTS (A/35/3/Add.24 and A/35/195) 1. Mr. KAMBAUWA (Malawi) said that this delegation welcomed the designation of 1985 as International Youth Year because, as a developing country Malawi realized that it represented a serious attempt to focus attention on the role youth could play in attaining a better world. Like most countries under colonial rule, Malawi had had to fight for its independence and, in that struggle, young people had fought bravely side by side with their elders. Following independence, in an effort to A/C.3/35/SR.45 English Page 3 (Mr. Karobauwa. Malawi) involve women and youth in the fight against poverty, ignorance and disease, the Government had sought to rechanneled the energies of young people towards nation-building. Every child was encouraged to attend school, the educational system had been expanded and vocational training institutions developed. Students were also taught Modern methods of agriculture in order to equip then to operate their own ferns or Join in the agricultural settlement Schemes Which had been established throughout the country. 2. Every year since 1967. Malawi had observed "Youth Week during which youth throughout the country, together with their parents, carried out specific development projects such as the construction of schools and health centres and the building of roads and bridges in both the urban and rural areas. That work was done entirely on a self-help basis, with limited Government financial assistance. In that connexion, he wished to express Malawi's gratitude to the European Economic Community the United States Agency for International Development, the Canadian International Development Agency end overseas church organizations, for their generous contributions. 3. Malawi believed that in developing countries, young people must Join in promoting national development. The observance of IYY would help to enhance the awareness of their role. His delegation also agreed with the recommendation of the Secretary-General that IYY should be seen not as a one-time event but as one step in a long-term planning and development strategy. 4. His delegation fully supported the idea of the proposed International Year of Disabled Persons. There was no reason why appropriate facilities and opportunities should not be provided to disabled persons to enable then to participate fully in the life of their nations. It was for that reason that the Government of Halawi had decided to establish the Malawi Council for the Handicapped, with responsibility for helping with the training of disabled persons and providing for their special needs. By encouraging disabled persons to develop skills. the Government honed to make them more useful citizens who would contribute to national development rather than be a burden on society. The Government of Malawi had already established a national committee which would be responsible for co-ordinating the activities relating to IYDP. 5. Mrs. HUSSAIH (Pakistan) said that the decolonized and developing countries had realized that the plundering of their cultures in bygone eras had been almost as fundamentally detrimental to their interests as the economic exploitation they had suffered under colonialism. Hot only had nations been deprived of their artistic heritage, but that crime had been compounded by a variety of distortions resulting from the imposition of extraneous cultural forms by one people upon another. Her delegation therefore regarded the report of the Director-General of UNESCO (A/35/349) as a most valuable document. A/C.3/35/SR.45 English Page 4 (Mrs. Hussain, Pakistan) 6. In Pakistan, the Government placed great emphasis on the need for the fullest possible access of all members of society to places, buildings, facilities and institutions which served as a medium for the transmission of culture and promoted national integration, The peoples of Pakistan were deeply proud of their cultural heritage. However, traditional and ancient cultures were facing challenges from modern scientific and technological developments often leading to cultural pollution through the mass media. It was therefore imperative that special studies be undertaken and measures adopted to enable the developing countries, local societies and individuals to protect their heritage and history from being submerged by that deluge. 7. Cultural co-operation between various regions as well as on the global level should be encouraged on a bilateral and multilateral basis, Her delegation therefore set great store by the Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property, adopted by the UNESCO General Conference in 1970. Her delegation also stressed the need for strengthening legislation on the subject and for extending the scope of such legislation. It believed that all art dealers in the States Members of the United Nations should be compulsorily registered and measures for restricting private ownership of national cultural treasures should be envisaged. The efforts of individual nations to prevent cultural plunder could succeed only if suitable action was taken at the international level. UNESCO had been seized of the matter for many years but a fool-proof system had yet to be evolved. 8. Her delegation wished to reiterate and emphasize the fundamental importance of the preservation and promotion of cultural values in developing a more balanced world order and improving the quality of life. The protection, restitution and return of cultural and artistic property to peoples to whom they rightfully belonged was a necessary condition for achieving that objective. 9. Mrs. EL-ALI (Syrian Arab Republic), referring to agenda items 69, 73, 79 and 8l, said that her Government welcomed the proclamation of 1985 as International Youth Year, as it also welcomed the interest of the Organization in the question of youth and its initiative in highlighting the matter. The youth of every nation was its hope for a better future, particularly in the case of the developing countries where it was one of the most important factors in development, liberation and progress. Her delegation hoped that the Advisory Committee would be successful in drawing up a programme of activities for the Year. 10. Concern for youth was a cornerstone of Syrian policy. Her country aspired to build a generation free from bourgeois and reactionary thought and from all social ills, one trained in scientific thinking and objectivity. Her country sought to create future generations with faith in their nation and in the struggle to realize its objectives, which were closely bound up with the issues of freedom and progress on the world level. It sought to support the struggle of the Arab nation against Zionism and imperialism, to help other nations to obtain their freedom and sovereignty and to raise generations believing in the role of the masses, in their own creative ability and in the potential of the Arab nation and of the developing nations aspiring to a better future. A/C.3/35/SR.45 English Page 5 (Mrs. El--Ali. Syrian Arab Republic) 11. On the basis of those principles, her Government had established a number of associations in the service of youth, namely the Union of Revolutionary Youth, the national Union of Syrian Students, and the General Sports Union. 12. The first of those was involved in voluntary participation in literacy programmes, tasks connected with national defence and the orientation of young people towards specialization in scientific subjects. It was concerned with the productive use by young people of their free time and held study groups on youth problems. It attached particular importance to the development of sports and organized youth camps. The Union worked in close co-ordination with social and economic institutions in order to derive maximum benefit from work camps and participated in afforestation, road-building, land reclamation, industrial production and the construction of youth centres. It encouraged the arts by organizing festivals and exhibitions. It was particularly interested in encouraging hygiene, social consciousness and vocational education. The Union was strengthening its relations with other organizations in the Arab world and elsewhere through co-operative agreements and study missions, and undertook informational activities on radio and television and in the press. It had founded a publishing house in order to encourage studies on youth and the work of young writers and had established the Youth Agency for Tourism. 13. The National Union of Syrian Students played an important role in the organization of student life and in student problems at home and abroad. It also organized a number of cultural activities and work camps for students. 14. The General Sports Union was involved in developing an awareness of the importance of health, in making sports available to the people, particularly to children and young people, in providing sports facilities and in encouraging amateurs and outstanding athletes. 15. The Baath Vanguard Organization concerned itself with school children, making use of the latest scientific methods in guiding then towards appropriate studio building up their confidence in their abilities and providing then with the means of overcoming indifference and dissatisfaction by organizing camps and seminars. 16. The Proclamation of 1981 as the International Year of Disabled Persons would help to increase interest in the problems of the disabled and to unite and intensify efforts to find ways of alleviating their sufferings. Her delegation hoped that the Year would be the beginning of a radical change in the economic and social status of disabled persons and that the United Nations, through its specialized agencies, would play an important role in that respect. 17. Many services were provided for disabled persons in Syria by the ministry of works and Social Affairs. In 1977 the Ministry had published a list of occupations for the blind and had taken part in a number of international conferences concerned with their welfare. The Ministry was also involved in the training of the deaf and dumb for suitable work and had established a special elementary school certificate for them. A/C.3/35/SR.45 English Page 6 18. Mrs. AKAMATSU (Japan), commenting on agenda item 79, Said that Japan had responded to the United Nations request for financial support for IYDP-related activities by immediately allocating $100,000 from its 1980 budget. In addition, the National Council for Disabled Persons had assumed the role of national committee for IYDP and the 55 members of that committee were representatives of groups of disabled persons, organizations wording for the disabled, welfare organizations and representatives from the mass Media, business and industry, labour and Government. 19. In order to achieve the objectives of full participation and equality of disabled persons, the co-operation of all countries was essential. Japan had been continuing its efforts, in co-operation with other countries, to promote activities designed to bring about further progress, particularly in the areas of the prevention and early detection of disabilities and in the rehabilitation of the disabled. In addition, the Japanese Government was planning a number of international seminars and symposia for 1981. Her Government sincerely hoped that the situation of disabled persons would be significantly improved as a result of international efforts to achieve the objectives of IYDP. 20. Her delegation welcomed the adoption by consensus of General Assembly resolution 34/151 on the establishment of International Youth Year. Young people were a nation's most precious resource and the hope of the entire world. Her delegation recognized the responsibilities which young people, as tomorrow's leaders, would have to bear in the areas of social and economic development, the protection of human rights and the realization of the other goals embodied in the Charter of the United Nations. 21. with regard to the idea of organizing a world conference on youth, her delegation believed that in sore conferences, the participants were inclined to be absorbed by the importance of existing political problems which in many cases could be discussed more constructively in other forums. She accordingly honed that the programmes of International Youth Year would 'achieve concrete results by establishing policy measures related to youth. 22. Miss BOOTQ (Zaire) said that her delegation welcomed the procreation of the International Year of Disabled Persons because it believed that it was high time that society did everything to ensure to it people who were regarded, often wrongly, as disabled could participate fully in social life and contribute on an equal footing with other members of society to the development of the community in which they lived. 23. In implementing the relevant resolutions adopted by the General Assembly, the Executive Council of the Republic of Zaire had decided to establish a National Committee for the International Year of Disabled Persons entrusted with the elaboration of objectives and priorities and the programme of action for the Year and with the periodic assessment of the progress achieved in that field. One of the Committee's objectives would be to induce a change of attitude by all, including the disabled themselves, in order to improve the living conditions of the disabled. To that end, the National Committee had undertaken various A/C.3/35/SR.45 English Pane 7 (miss Booto, Zaire) projects at both the national and international levels. Finally, her delegation supported the idea of organizing an international seminar on technical assistance in the field of services for the dialed and technical co-operation among developing countries. 24. Her delegation was particularly interested in agenda item 70 because it believed that the identity of a people was reflected in its cultural patrimony, which was the link between the mast and the present and future. Cultural values also played a special role in the development of nations because that development had to focus on the capacities and creativity of their citizens. Certain countries urgently needed to reconstitute their national cultural patrimony, as explained in 1973 at the twenty-eight session of the General Assembly the President of Zaire. In conclusion, she hoped that draft resolution A/C.3/35/L.33 on the restitution and return of cultural and artistic property to its countries of origin would be adopted by consensus in the Committee. 25. Mr. TARASYUK (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic) said in connexion with agenda item 73, that his delegation supported the proposal to draft a Convention on the Rights of the Child and hoped that the drafting would be completed at the thirty-seventh session of the Commission on Human Rights and that the draft Convention would be adopted at the subsequent session of the General Assembly. His delegation therefore supported draft resolution A/C. 3/35/L.14 26. Turning to agenda item 76, he said that his delegation was convinced that the International Covenants on Human Rights had stood the test of tine and proved the correctness of the approach of the States which had participated in drafting then, including the Ukrainian SSR. The International Covenants had encore nighly important instruments of international co-operation in the promotion and development of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It was nevertheless regrettable that by no means all Member States of the United Nations wished to take part in that international co-operation; the attitude of States towards accession to the International Covenants was one of the most important indications of their true attitude towards human rights. Since the entry into force of the International Covenants, the ruling circles of certain Western countries had said a great deal about human rights in other countries. It was curious to find, however, what one of those countries whose leaders regarded human rights as the corner-stone of their foreign policy did not wish to assume specific international legal obligations in that sphere. Clearly that position was much more convenient for purposes of interfering in the internal affairs of other States and making malicious accusations based on invention, falsification and demagogy. That country clearly did not wish to have to submit reports to bodies established under the International Covenants and to explain why, in the most developed country of the capitalist world, nearly 8 million people were deprived of the right to work, about 25 million lived below the official poverty level, racial disturbances were frequent and women continued to be denied equal rights with men. A/C.3/35/SR.45 English Page 8 (Mr. Tarasyuk., Ukrainian SSR) 27. The Human Rights Committee was doing useful and responsible work and it was to be hoped that it would continue its efforts. His delegation was also satisfied with the work of the Sessional Working Croup of the Economic and Social Council on the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, which had confirmed the correctness of the approach taken to questions of its composition, mandate and functions. It had been demonstrated that, with the presence of goodwill, all members of the Sessional Working Croup could effectively perform the functions entrusted to them. One of the reports considered had been that of the Ukrainian SSR and the Sessional Working Croup had noted the great achievements of the Ukrainian SSR in the field of socio-economic development and its conscientious fulfillment of its obligations under the International Covenant on Economic. Social and Cultural Rights. 28. Compliance with those obligations was under the constant supervision of the Supreme Soviet. In June 1980, the Commission on Foreign Affairs of the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR had discussed the results of the consideration of the reporter from the Ukrainian SSR by the Human Rights Committee and the Sessional Working Group. 29. The real guarantees of the observance of vital human rights consisted primarily in fulfilling economic, social and other prerequisites, including the elimination of the exploitation of man by man, the development of the economy and the institution of a system for a fair distribution of the national wealth. 30. Citizens of the Ukrainian SSR enjoyed a road range of rights and freedoms under the Constitution and the social system. As a result of the planned development of the economy, there had been a steady improvement in the well-being of the people which had made it possible to ensure the implementation of economic, social and cultural rights and of all other rights and freedoms. The elections to the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR and local soviets of people's deputies in February 1980 had demonstrated the essentially democratic nature of the socialist system. 31. His delegation hoped that the number of parties to the International Covenants would continue to increase. The only way of improving the effectiveness of international co-operation in encouraging and developing respect for human rights in accordance with the United nations Charter wa3 to make those international legal instruments genuinely universal, to strengthen their authority and to improve the machinery for their implementations rather than establish new machinery. 32. His delegation rejected the so-called signing"' of the International Covenants by an individual who claimed to represent Kampuchea but who actually represented nobody, as an attempt to resuscitate the criminal Pol Pot clique: it absolutely refused to recognize that clique's credentials in the United Nations. 33. Mr. Nordenfelt (Sweden) took the Chair. 34. Mr. ABDUL-AZIZ (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya) said that his delegation would like to record its position on agenda items 79, 69 and 71 only. With reference to the A/C.3/35/SR.45 English Page 9 (Mr. Abdul-Aziz, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya) International Year of Disabled Persons, he stressed that the care of the disabled was clearly a moral and humanitarian obligation. The disabled person was like any other individual in society; he had the same rights and obligations and could play a positive role in economic, social, political and cultural life. 35. The latest statistics indicated that there were 500 million disabled persons in the world and that 350 million of them, the majority of whom lived in the rural areas of the developing countries, had no access to social services. Those figures indicated that the international community should make greater efforts to improve the situation of disabled persons and enable them to enjoy their economic, political, social and cultural rights. The proclamation of 1981 as the International Year of Disabled Persons was a great opportunity to fulfil that humanitarian obligation at the national, regional and international levels. 36. With reference to the recommendations of the Advisory Committee in document A/35/444, his delegation stressed the importance of the participation of disabled persons and their organizations in the activities of the Year, in accordance with it3 slogan, "full participation and equality . Such participation should not be restricted to the implementation of the plan of action during the Year itself but should embrace full participation in the programmes resulting from the Year. His country considered the recommendation of the Advisory Committee on the convening of a world conference for disabled persons to be premature in view of material, financial and scheduling problems. Such a conference should be postponed until the long-term plan had been implemented and should not be held before 1985. One of the most important recommendations of the Advisory Committee had been that concerning disabled children, since statistics showed that many disabilities, particularly in the developing countries, could be avoided if preventive health services were available to children from an early age. The roles" of UNICEF and WHO in planning for disabled children were fundamental in the light of the results obtained from the International Year of the Child and their work in the field of health and disease prevention. 37. His delegation considered it important to revive and further develop the International Institute for the Rehabilitation of Disabled Persons in Developing Countries as a basis for co-operation in the field of rehabilitation. That would be a positive contribution to the activities of the International Year and a constructive step towards the integration of disabled persons into everyday life. The Advisory Committee should re-examine the subject and present recommendations for the enlargement of the Institute. In the absence of a world conference related to the International Year, the international symposium of experts from developing countries and from some of the advanced countries on technical co-operation and technical assistance for disabled persons to be held in 1981 would be one of the most important events within the framework of the Year. His delegation stressed the importance of early preparation for the symposium in order to ensure its success. Representatives of the least advanced countries should also take part. 38. With reference to the information programme. his country stressed the importance of informational activities connected with the Year. The Advisory Committee had recommended at its first session that the Secretary-General should encourage the A/C.3/35/SR.45 English Page 10 (Mr. Abdul-Aziz, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya) dissemination of information on the objectives of the Year to increase public awareness of the rights of disabled persons. The United Nations Department of Public Information had done everything in its power to carry out that objective despite its limited financial resources. The Advisory Committee had adopted a positive position in requesting the Secretary-General to supply the secretariat of IYDP with the financial and human resources necessary to carry out public information activities. His country supported that recommendation and hoped it would be taken into consideration because of the importance of the role of information in increasing the avarenes3 of the international community of the rights of disabled persons to full participation and equality. 39. His delegation considered it important to draw the attention of States, international and non-governmental organizations to the Plan of Action presented in the report of the Advisory Committee at its second session so that they could present their comments on it at an early opportunity. The preparation of the long-term plan was one of the most important efforts of the International Year and it was to be hoped that the international symposium could contribute to its formulation. 40. His delegation commended the positive role of the non-governmental organizations and their activities in connexion with the International Year of Disabled Persons. The Congress of Rehabilitation International, held in Winnipeg in June 1960, was an example of such initiative. 41. On the national level, the National Committee for Disabled Persons of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya had already begun its activities and would henceforth be a permanent agency. Sub-committees had been formed on legislation, information, preparations for a possible world conference to be convened during the last quarter of 1983 on the prevention of disablement. Those activities on the part of the National Committee should be considered as participation in the International Year. 42. The proclamation of International Years within the framework of the United Nations should not be a passing expression of concern, but should be considered as the best opportunity for arousing interest and concentrating effort in specified fields. The proclamation of 1985 as International Youth Year: Participation, Development, Peace, should reflect the positive interest of the international community in the young as a force in bringing about social change and was an opportunity to give prominence to the role of youth in development and in the strengthening of peace and mutual understanding and the consolidation of the principles of co-operation. 43. His delegation reasserted the importance of thorough preparation and co-ordination for the Year on the notional, regional and international levels. The participation of young people in those preparations was a matter of fundamental importance for the success of the Year. Speed in the constitution of the Advisory Committee was of primary importance in inaugurating the Years programmes. It was also necessary to learn from the mistakes made in the past in connexion with such occasions. A/C.3/35/SR.45 English Page 11 (Mr. Abdul-Aziz, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya) 44. The General Assembly had decided to organize a World Assembly on the Elderly in 1982 as the beginning of an international programme of action to co-ordinate social and economic activities for the elderly and to enable them to participate in the development of their societies. All areas of the world had witnessed absolute and relived increases in their older population group but the circumstances differed from one area to another depending on economic and socia3 systems, customs, family traditions and attitudes towards the elderly. The World Assembly on the Elderly would present an opportunity for a dialogue among Governments concerning ways and means of dealing with the problems of elderly persons. 45. In that connexion, his delegation would prefer that no separate administrative organ be established for the world Assembly on the Elderly requiring additional personnel and funds. Preparation for the World Assembly should not be an activity separate from the regular programme for the elderly and the aged, but should be co-ordinated with the latter in order to avoid duplication of effort and excessive costs. There was no need to spend additional funds by creating new bureaucratic positions and increasing the burden of the Secretariat: those resources could be spent on studies of the elderly and on planning for their benefit. 46. Miss NAGY (Egypt), referring to agenda item 70, said that Egypt's interest in the subject was well known since it directly affected the interests, culture and civilization of many peoples who had lost a great number of antiquities., among whom Egypt was one of the most severely affected, No nation could be completely independent unless it exercised full sovereignty over all sources of wealth, including cultural and artistic property. The continued appropriation of antiquities and works of art and the snuggling of art to other countries could only be considered a crime against the peoples of the countries of rigin. Every State had the right to protect and defend those treasures. 47. Egypt, Whose history was rich in art and culture, believed in the importance of cultural and intellectual exchange because of its contribution to co-operation, to the intellectual development of future generations and to international peace and security. Egypt had been the first nation to encourage the interest of the world in its antiquities and treasures by undertaking to exhibit them in various world capitals Consequently, Egypt had been the first country to implement the recommendation of the UNESCO General Conference concerning the international exchange of cultural property. The fact that much of the Egyptian cultural heritage was housed in foreign museums called for a re-examination of the circumstances which that situation came about, and would necessitate negotiations with these foreign countries with a view to the implementation of the 1970 UNESCO convention. 48. Egypt implored all countries to respect and apply article 4 of the Hague Convention concerning the protection of cultural property in time of armed conflict and to accede to the Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import. Expert and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property. Egypt welcomed the efforts of one Intergovernmental Committee for Promoting the Return of Cultural Property on its Countries of Origin or its restitution in Case of Illicit Approprian and particularly its recommendations to the twenty first UNESCO General concurrence held in Belgrade. Egypt also thanked the Sectary-General A/C.3/35/SR.45 English Page 12 (Miss Nagy. Egypt) of UNESCO for the efforts of his organization in the field and wished him success in preparing his report to the thirty-sixth session of the General Assembly on the implementation of those recommendations. 49. The Egyptian delegation reaffirmed its condemnation of the decision of the Israeli Knesset concerning the annexation of Jerusalem and its proclamation as the capital of Israel, which had been condemned by the Security Council in resolution 478 (1980). It further condemned the change in the legal status of Jerusalem and its Arab and religious character, the expropriation of Arab property and the transfer of Arab antiquities from Nablus and Jericho to museums in Tel Aviv. It also considered the events in Hebron, the conversion of the greater part of the mosque there into a synagogue and the attempt to alter its Arab character as an infringement of all religious and ethical values and a threat to international peace and security. The Egyptian delegation, together with that of Zaire, had prepared a draft resolution on the subject and hoped that it would obtain the unanimous agreement of the Committee. 50. Egypt was deeply concerned about the aged, youth and children, but she would confine her remarks to the items concerning youth and disabled persons. 51. Referring to agenda items 69 and 8l, she said that there was general agreement on the importance of the role of youth both on the national level, with respect to development, and on the international level, where youth played a role in strengthening relations, in working for the establishment of a Hew International Economic Order and in assuring world peace and security. 52. Egypt had an independent agency concerned with youth and its problems, the Higher Council for Youth and Sport. 53. The comments of the Government of Egypt concerning the International Youth Year and "he improvement of contacts between the United Nations and youth and youth organizations appeared in documents A/33/257/Add.1 and A/35/36l/Add.l, and in the report of the Secretary-General on agenda item 8l (A/35/503). The Egyptian delegation wished to express its gratitude to the Secretary-General for the suggestions made in that report. Egypt hoped that the International Youth Year would not be an isolated event but a step towards the realization of the objectives for which the Year was proclaimed. The participation of youth and of youth organizations in the preparations for the Year, the benefit to be derived from their experience and skills and from a knowledge of their problems, would ensure the improvement of contacts between the United Nations and youth and its organizations. The regional commissions, which played an effective role within the framework of the United Nations Decade for Women, should play the same role in preparations for the International Youth Year. On the national level, comprehensive strategies should be drawn up to reconcile the needs of youth with economic and social plans, and special importance should be attached to rural youth, in particular in the developing countries. Egypt expressed regret that it had not been possible to constitute the Advisory Committee in accordance with General Assembly resolution 34/151 and hoped that agreement could be reached concerning its composition at the earliest opportunity. A/C.3/35/SR.45 English Page 13 (Miss. Nagy. Egypt)) 54. Referring to the International Year of Disabled Persons, she pointed out that Egypt had a separate agency devoted to the health and training of disabled persons which also cared for those disabled in its numerous wars. An effort should be made on the national, regional and international levels to publicize the Year and to call attention to its importance. 55. Her delegation welcomed the efforts of the secretariat of the IYDP, was gratified by the results of the regional conferences held in Africa and Asia on the question; end hoped that the symposium which would be held shortly in Latin America would be fruitful. It expressed its appreciation to the advisory committee for its efforts in promoting the objectives of the Year. At the national level, the role of non-governmental organizations should not be neglected. Her delegation supported the convening of a conference of those organizations as quickly as possible in order to lend support to the activities of the International Year of Disabled Persons. 56. She stressed the importance of the symposium to be held in Argentina in 1981 to bring together experts in technical assistance in the field of disability and technical co-operation among developing countries. The symposium was a dynamic instrument which would assure disabled persons that the International Year had been designed to help them in a practical and effective manner. 57. Mr. Garvalov resumed the Chair. 58. Miss EGZIABHER (Ethiopia) said that young people should be mobilized to play a meaningful role in the tasks of national development and social progress and should participate in the promotion and protection of the principles of the United Nations, thus helping to establish the New International Economic Order and to preserve world peace. 59. Ethiopian youth had demonstrated a commitment to the cause of social justice by rallying behind the people in its struggle against tyranny and exploitation and also by Sharing in the sacrifices demanded by the struggle. Young people were participating fully in the task of national reconstruction, thereby contributing their share to the creation of a better tomorrow. They were organized on the local, district, provincial and national levels under the age is of the National Ethiopian Youth Association. 60. Referring to the item on a Convention on the rights of the child, she said that the International Year of the Child had given additional impetus to Ethiopia's efforts to solve problems related to the child. During the past year, 350 kindergartens had been established and a children's village that accommodated 2,000 children had been built for the benefit of orphans. She thanked all those Governments and organizations, particularly those of Cuba, Sweden, Austria and UNICEF, which had extend d their generous assistance to Ethiopia. A Convention on the rights of the child could go a long way in helping to stimulate national.. regional and international measures that would enhance the well-being and advancement of children. A/C.3/35/SR.45 English Page 14 (Miss Egziabher Ethiopia) 61. Turning to agenda item 68, she said that religious intolerance and religious fanaticism were matters of urgent international concern which could have adverse implications for the maintenance of international peace and security. History had shown that the use of religion for the advancement of secular and parochial ends had only contributed to the deprivation and suffering of millions. Consequently, the drafting of a declaration on the elimination of all forms of religious intolerance by the United Nations and scrupulous adherence to its provisions was an action long overdue. Hot enough attention had been paid thus far to the question of religious intolerance. 62. She pointed out that, in the belief that the most civilized individuals and societies were those that ensured religious equality and tolerance, her Government counted among the first revolutionary measures taken by the new Ethiopia a proclamation that ensured the equality of all religions and the separation of State and religion. In that spirit, her delegation would welcome a draft Convention on the elimination of racial intolerance. 63. Mr. ZWANE (Swaziland) said that the Secretary-General had rightly suggested that the International Youth Year should be seen as a step in a long-term planning and development process and not as a one-time event (A/35/361). In preparation for the Year it wa3 imperative for the family, the State and the international community to define appropriate norms and priorities for the guidance of young people. Cultural orientation should be undertaken with due regard for good ideas from young people themselves. The young should be exposed to young people's ideas in other parts of the world. However, the appreciation of other cultures should not serve as an excuse for youth to compromise their own national cultural norms. 64. Young people should he exposed to education designed to prepare them for fruitful participation in nation building and international understanding. In that connexion, his delegation commented the role played by UNESCO and other United Nations organs concerned with education. 65. It was essential that the young people of developing countries should have an awareness of the truth that the well-being of a nation depended upon a healthy economy. Appreciation of the importance of studies in agriculture, forestry, fishing and carpentry would induce the young to participate fully in development and thus lend to the realization of the Mew International Economic Order. 66. The maintenance of peace and security was one of the cardinal preoccupations of the United nations. Before, during and after the International Youth Year the world community and its youth had to address themselves to peace. Government in all countries should refrain from involving young people in acts of war on the pretext that the national security had to be protected or other excuses. 67. The importance of the establishment and maintenance of channels of communication among youth and youth organizations could not be over-emphasized. His delegation concurred with the suggestion contained in paragraph 17 of A/C.3/35/SR.45 English Page 15 (Mr. Zwane. Swaziland) document A/35/503 and felt that the suggestions of the Secretary-General in paragraph 20 of the same document deserved careful consideration by Governments and youth organizations because their application would instil a sense of belonging and pride in young people around the world. 68. Mr. ROUCOUNAS (Greece), speaking on agenda item 70. said that the report of the Director-General of UNESCO (A/35/349) contained much useful information about international co-operation in the preservation and further development of cultural values. 69. The first requirement was to identify the cultural heritage of each people. International action must not replace the initiatives and policies of each State, but should assist interested Governments in implementing appropriate programmes, taking advantage of the experience and resources of the international community. International instruments contained a variety of definitions of cultural values but that question needed to be resolved in each country in the light of well-established traditions before decisions could be taken as to what was worth developing and preserving. 70. The report of the Director-General rightly linked the preservation and further development of cultural values to development since cultural and social questions were inextricably linked. In that connexion, it was necessary to educate public opinion about the cultural treasures of other countries so as to foster mutual understanding, respect and admiration. 71. UNESCO had carried out major campaigns for the protection and restoration of cultural property. Specialists and archaeologists from all countries should work together in the some direction. The training of local specialists to care for protected monuments was also a matter of high priority. The range of activities was expanding to include the protection of all cultural property, whether on land, underground, or in the depths of the seas. 72. The 1970 Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property established the principles and means for the return and restitution of cultural and artistic property. In addition to urging accession to the Convention, the General Assembly should make recommendations for the restitution of cultural property which had been illegally transferred from the country of origin. The illegal transfer of cultural property was an affront to the conscience of mankind. 73. Cultural property situated in the places where for centuries they had been intertwined with history and tradition, constituted the heritage of mankind. The international community must contribute to the return of illegally transferred cultural property to their places of origin. 74. Mr. OKELLO (Uganda) said that the future of any country rested with its young people for they would one day assume responsibility for managing the affairs of State and the destiny of their nations. It was therefore the duty English Page 16 (Mr. Okello, Uganda) of every notion to guide and assist young people in harnessing their vast potential for positive participation in development and peace. 75. Uganda had once been known for its youth programmes and, before the establishment of a Feseist dictatorship, the young people of Uganda had been given ovary opportunity to develop their talents. In addition to formal education. there had been a comprehensive youth policy Which recognized the vital role of various youth organizations for the total development of young people. Both Government and voluntary youth organizations had been formed and some of them had now been revived and had started to operate again. The youth organizations were actively involved in the development process of Uganda. 76. The eight years of Fascist dictatorship in Uganda had plunged young people into misery Homes, schools, hospitals and all the infrastructure that had been built had been destroyed. Many Ugandan young people had become orphans as a result of the systematic cold-blooded murder of innocent people and many of them had lost their lives. As a result, they had become demoralized and many of them were unable to accept themselves or adjust to society. The recovery of Uganda and especially of young people from the psychological impact of repression would not be easy, but despite the limited resources, the people of Uganda were determined to give priority to the rehabilitation of young people. With the assistance of Governments and international organizations, his Government had taken measures towards rehabilitation, and efforts were also being made under non-government progremmes. Free school had been introduced for all orphans and rehabilitation centres on a self-help basis had teen set up all over the country. 77. The problems faced by young people in Uganda were also found in South Africa Namibia and other areas of the world where the peoples continued to be victims of apartheid racism, racial discrimination and foreign domination. While nations individually could do a great deal to alleviate those problems, action at the international level was imperative to enable young people to realize their role in development and peace. His delegation therefore welcomed the proclamation of International Youth Year as a means of focusing international attention on the particular problems of young people and on how best to deal with them. It called upon the international community to consider possible means by which the developed countries in their programmes for International Youth Year, in a spirit of international co-operation, could work with young people from the developing countries in order to help them achieve the goals of the Year. Yet the International Year would be only a beginning: young people had been neglected and disadvantaged for a long time, and one year was not enough to develop a solution to the problem. 78. Mr. VOLLERS (Federal Republic of Germany) said that he hoped that more Member States of the United Nations would accede to the International Covenants on Human Rights and would accept a binding obligation to respect the human rights enumerated therein. His delegation also attached great importance to the effective implementation of the provisions of the Covenant by the States parties He commended the Human rights Committee for its performance in scrutinizing the reports of States parties and engaging the reporting States in a useful A/C.3/35/SR.45 English Page 17 (Mr. vollers, Federal Republic of Germany) discussion. The more detailed and constructive a State report, the easier it was to ask questions and discuss fine points. Therefore the Committee should never accept sweeping statements by a State that there were no problems to report. 79. The Sessional Working Group on the Implementation of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights had finally been able to begin considering reports of States parties. In spite of differences in principle, the Working Group had teen able to arrive at a compromise on the way in which it was to conduct its work given present circumstances and procedures. The assistance and co-operation of the International Labour Organization had been most helpful in furthering the Working Group's difficult task. However, the standard of work and quality of the Human Rights Committee had not been achieved. It must also be said that the result had fallen short of his Government's expectations. 80. The sessional character of the Working Group had given its members little time to prepare themselves for the discussion of the reports. They had had other duties during the Economic and Social Council session, and they had often been conscious of a certain lack of expertise in more complicated fields like social legislation. The Working Group had prepared a procedural report to the Economic and Social Council which had not at all reflected the contents of its debate. there was also a constitutional difficulty because the Covenant declared the Economic and Social Council to be the responsible body in the consideration of reports 81. It was indispensable that the Economic and Social Council should receive a report by the Working Group which reflected the differences in the quality of State reports and the equally different degrees to which the representatives of States had co-operated with the Committee. Some of them had taken great pains to inform the Working Group fully, while others had not been prepared to answer questions in detail. His Government sincerely hoped that the Economic and Social Council would find a better system for the Working Group, modelled on the Human Sights Committee and the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. 82. The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights was also of great importance in the question of capital punishment, which was closely related to the idea of human rights. Recently, more and more cases of obvious abuse of the death penalty had occurred. The United Nations should discuss the problem of capital punishment, especially within the wider context of human rights. The Federal Republic of Germany would propose a discussion on an international covenant concerning the abolition of the death penalty, which could be elaborated in the framework of the United nations. Such an instrument would open the possibility to States to undertake an international obligation to abolish capital punishment or not to reintroduce it once it had been abolished. The instrument could be drafted as a second optional protocol to the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. His delegation would welcome comments on that idea in the Committee and would like to revert to the proposal in connexion with item 65. Which dealt with the results of the Crime Prevention Congress held in Caracas. 83. He thanked the Division of Human Rights for the excellent work it had done to A/C.3/35/SR.45 English Page 18 (Mr. ValuersFederal Republic of Germany) provide the best possible assistance in the implementation of the two Covenants, despite insufficient staffing. He hoped that the important work of the Division would soon be acknowledged by creating a centre for human rights in the United Nations system and providing the centre with the necessary funds and personnel to perform fully its functions. 84. The CHEIRMAN said that at the next meeting of the Committee the draft resolutions submitted under agenda items 00 and 83 Would be introduced and voted upon in the order in which they had been submitted. 85. announced that there had been changes in draft resolution A/CO/35/L He felt it Would be useful to begin consideration of the draft resolution but not to vote on it that afternoon. 86. The CHEIRMAN said that it was probably not realistic to expect that draft resolution A/C.3/35/L.23/Rev.l would be voted upon before the following day. The meeting rose at 1.05 P.M.