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Implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women : report of the Secretary-General.

UN Document Symbol A/43/638
Convention Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
Document Type Report of the Secretary-General
Session 43rd
Type Document

29 p., graphs, tables

Subjects Women in Development, Women's Advancement, Persons with Disabilities

Extracted Text



General Assembly

28 September 1988

Forty-third session Agenda item 95
Implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking strategies for the Advancement or Woman

WOMEN 3 - 56
A. Priority theme: Equality - Equality in economic and
social participation 6 - 32
B. Priority theme: Development - Women and education,
eradication of illiteracy, employment, health and
social services, including population issues and child
care ................ 33 -49
C. Priority theme: Peace - Full participation of women in
the construction of their countries and in the creation
of just social and political systems 50 - 56



0438f (E)

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CONTENTS (continued)
Paragraphs Page
A. Monitoring and review and appraisal 58-62 20
B. Role of the Commission on the Statue of Women 63 21
C. Programmes 64 - 67 22
D. Situation of disabled women 68-69 23
E. New five-year targets at each level for the percentage
of women in Professional and decision-making positions 70 - 88 23
Public information

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1. The General Assembly, in its resolution 42/62 of 30 November 1987 on the implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women, provided comprehensive guidance to Governments, the organizations of the United nations system and the international community generally in the implementation of the Strategies. The Assembly requested the Secretary-General to report to it at its forty-third session on the measures taken to implement the resolution.
2. The present report has been structured according to that mandate. Section II consists of an assessment of recent developments relevant to the priority themes to be considered by the Commission on the Status of Women, and is based on a collaborative effort of the organisations of the United Nations system.
Section XXX describes the action taken to implement relevant aspects of resolution 42/62. The question of national action, not dealt with here, will be covered as part of the process of review and appraisal of the implementation of the Forward-looking Strategies.
3. Resolution 42/62 requested the Secretary-General to include an assessment of recent developments relevant to the priority themes to be considered at the subsequent session of the Commission on the Status of Women and to transmit to the Commission a summary of the views expressed during the debate of the General Assembly.
4. The priority themes related to the objectives of the United Nations Decade for Women - equalities development and peace - have become the centre-piece of the regular discussion of the Commission. The preparation process has been seen as critical, and in conformity with Economic and Social Council resolution 1987/24 a work programme for the 19S9 priority themes was before the Commission when it considered the provisional agenda for the thirty-third session.
5. The purpose of discussing priority themes is to elucidate critical issues in the implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies, which can be focused properly only if the most essential issues within each theme are identified and dealt with in a practical manner as recommended by the Commission in its resolution 32/6. In assessing recent developments, the Secretary-General, in co-operation with other organisations of the United Nations system, has sought to indicate those issues moat deserving of attention. The discussion in the General Assembly should provide an even more precise focus.

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A. Priority Them: Equality - Equality in economic and social participation
6. Equal opportunities for women and man to develop themselves to the fullest would represent a tangible achievement of the objectives of the Forward-looking Strategies. The theme is intended to explore the extent to which equality in economic and social participation has been achieved, in law and in practice, and the policies necessary to overcome obstacles.
7. Participation has three components: contribution, benefit and involvement in the decision-making process. Because participation in decision-making will be the equality priority theme in 1990, the emphasis in 1984 will be on the first two aspects. Although there may be an increase in women's contribution to economic and social aspects of life, it does not necessarily follow that there will be a proportionate increase in the benefits they derive. Moreover, although the United Nations Decade for Women stimulated the reform of laws that discriminated against women and the adoption of new ones providing for equal rights and opportunities, the improved situation fie jure may not be reflected by the de, fagto, situation in many economic and social areas.
8. One of the recognized achievements of the Decade was the adoption of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. To date 94 Member States have ratified or acceded to the Convention, an indication of the good progress in achieving de jura equality, even though the rate of ratification or accession has dropped markedly in the past few years and obstacles have been encountered by many States in bringing the articles of the Convention into national statutes. At its seventh session in 1988, the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women noted that the reports, the introductory remarks and the replies by States parties to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women revealed that, while significant progress had been achieved in repealing or modifying discriminatory laws, action was still needed to implement the Convention fully through measures to promote de facto equality. Article 4.1 of the Convention states that "adoption by States parties of temporary special measures aimed at accelerating de facto equality between men and women shall not be considered discrimination as defined by the Convention, but shall in no way entail as a consequence the maintenance of unequal or separate standards, these measures shall be discontinued when the objectives of equality of opportunity and treatment have been achieved". The Committee recommended that States parties make more use of temporary special measures such as positive action, preferential treatment or quota systems to advance women's integration into education, the economy, politics and employment.
9. This global appraisal has been echoed in several regions. A report prepared by the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) in 1983 on the regional implementation of the Convention 1/ concluded that discrimination against women persisted, despite changes in the legal framework of the signatory countries. The Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) has reported that despite the continuing efforts of its member Governments to ensure equality, more opportunities are needed for greater participation by women in economic and social sectors, and in political life and the decision-making process at all levels, especially at the

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national centre of power, in development planning and policy, and in the disbursement of resources.
10. As the problem of sex discrimination affects all countries, it received particular attention in the general survey prepared in 1966 by the ILO Committee of Experts on the Applications of Conventions and Recommendations, on Convention and Recommendation 111, which covers discrimination based on certain grounds, including sex. The survey showed that in a number of countries machinery has been established to ensure practical implementation of national policy designed to promote equality of opportunity and treatment in respect of sex. The problem of indirect discrimination, which seriously affects equality of opportunity and treatment, was also studied, particularly occupational segregation based on sex. Archaic attitudes and stereotypes as regards the distribution of "male" and "female" tasks were found to be still prevalent in a great number of countries, even though some progress may be noted. The survey also noted that sexual harassment is a potential threat to women workers and the enterprise. The adoption of affirmative action or corrective programmes stemmed from the observation that banning discrimination is not sufficient to eliminate de facto discrimination based on sex. The survey stressed that only a combination of legislative and practical measures encouraging the understanding and acceptance of the principle of equality, such as affirmative action, could lead to the elimination of various forms of discrimination. A similar survey in 1986 on the Convention (No. 100) concerning Equal Remuneration for Men and Women Workers for work of Equal Value (Equal Remuneration Convention) indicated that the problem of equal remuneration was only one element of the broader problem of discrimination between men and women in employment and that the practical application of the principle of equal remuneration was intimately linked with the general status of men and women in employment and society.
11. An obstacle cited by developing countries in the Asia and Pacific region that had legislated equal rights for women or removed discriminatory Jegai provisions was the inconsistency between these laws and the administrative measures enacted to implement them. The lack of systematic follow-through, such as educating women in their new rights and ensuring an effective response by the judiciary, system to petitions for redress of violations of women's rights, had in some cases rendered these laws ineffective. ESCAP concluded that the political will and effort to change societal values underlying women's inequality would have to come not only from Governments, but also from the rest of society.
12. With improved information, it is now easier to examine the exent of equality. Statistics collected in the economic Areas of development, financial autonomy and access to land ownership and in Nocinl activities show that few policies and plans have been implemented to advance women. Information in. the women's indicators and statistics data base, prepared by the Statistical Office of the United Nations in close co-operation with other organizations of the United Nations system, is being examined to determine trends in the advancement of women.
13. Kay indicators in the data base show a disturbing lack of progress. The extent to which equality in economic and social participation has been achieved can be expressed as a ratio between women and men. When the ratio is 1.0, equality

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exists. A ratio of less than 1.0 indicates inequality for women. One such ratio relates to labour force participation. A comparison of 1970, 1980 and 1985 statistics indicates almost no change in the ratio of women to men in labour force participation over the last decade, globally or by region (figure 1). The global ratio is barely above 0.5, indicating that de jure measures have not been reflected in improved participation of women in the labour force as currently measured in population censuses and household surveys. While there are some differences by region, the lack of change over time is striking.
14. While participation in the labour force is an ambiguous indicator of opportunity, since women could have chosen not to participate in economic activity as defined internationally, the ratio of women to men in enrolment in first-level schooling is a clear indicator of equality of opportunity. The information contained in the data base, shown in figure 2, indicates that while progress was made in some regions between 1970 and 1980 the latest figures suggest no further advance towards achieving equality of access to first-level education and, in some areas, point to a deterioration. Work undertaken on the effects of economic recession on women suggests that the effect of economic conditions on access to education, particularly in developing countries, is greater for girls than for boys. The preparation of the theme will include further explanation of these and other indicators of equality.
15. Policy trends related to the general phenomenon of de facte equality - some positive, some negative - have been reported by organizations of the United Nations system for both national and international levels of action.

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Figure 1. Ratio of woman to man in economically active Population: 3970. 1980 and 1985
Source: "United Nations Statistical Office Women" Indicators and Statistic Data Base (WISTAT), 1988.

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Figure 2. Ratio of girls to boys in first-lavsl schools, world and regions 1970. 1960 and latest statistics
Source: Unitad Nations Statistical Office, Women's Indicators and Statistics Data Base (WISTAT), 1988.

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l. national level
16. A number of trends and policies related to the economic participation of women, especially rural women, were noted. The World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development, held in 1970, established a framework for ensuring equal participation of rural women in economic and social development. The second progress report on the Programme of Action of that Conference, presented to the twenty-fourth session of the General Conference of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations in November 1967, indicated that, despite increasing recognition of the vital importance of rural women's contributions to food security, only some countries have taken significant steps to ensure their full participation in development programmes. A few countries had gone further in envisaging how women might influence, and be influenced by, the planned socio-economic programmes. It was also noted that the lack of access to land and tenure ship rights remains one of the major obstacles preventing women's full participation in rural development, and restricts access to co-operatives and credit. However, the World Council of Credit Unions reported that the involvement of women has been a notable success of the International credit union movement. Studies in several countries show that women frequently play the major role in handling family finances. Accordingly, credit unions have encouraged women to join, and use, the available savings and credit services. In several countries, considerably more than half of the membership are women. In a number of African countries, several credit unions are exclusively for women, generally organized among market traders.
17. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has concluded that policy-makers and planners still often ignore the crucial role of women in agricultural and food production. Women should be key actors in strategies for food security and self-sufficiency. But women are pushed out by the introduction of cash crops and improved technology, usually controlling neither the land nor the fruits of their agricultural labour, and often lacking inheritance rights.
18. The Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) indicated that the importance of women in self-reliance activities was growing: case studies Indicated that women in selected villages undertook income generation activities on an informal basis, either individually or in groups, to supplement their income. Such women faced many problems related to quality control, marketing and management. ESCWA studies propose providing such activities with the necessary material and organisation and/or institutional support so that they could develop an indigenous self-reliance.
19. The support, provided by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is increasingly directed towards:
(a) Strengthening viable co-operatives and pre-co-operative groups;
(b) Encouraging women's direct access to formal (commercial) bank credit systems by guaranteeing security funds;

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(c) Assisting national anti-poverty programmes and credit systems to upgrade the technical, entrepreneurial and management capacity of the personnel involved in programme design and the execution of loans.
20. The Department of Technical Co-operation for Development of the Secretariat has indicated that women's increased role in planning, operating and maintaining rural water supply and sanitation systems has been one of the most significant developments of the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade (1981-1990). As women are the primary users and fetchers of water in the rural areas, the success of the programme to reduce water-borne disease through improved water facilities would be impossible without their active participation.
21. The World Bank reports that operational support to involve women farmers more effectively will improve the welfare of the family and open up opportunities for other economic activities for women, as well as men, through economic spin-off effects that promote small-scale enterprises and a variety of rural services. Thus agricultural investments can generate broader employment and so help stem the tide of rural-to-urban migration.
22. In the technical field of transport, the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) reported that the integration of women in the decision-making process had improved since the introduction of new technologies had helped to remove barriers to their participation in both shore-based and seagoing occupations. Compared to even a few years ago, women are now better represented in maritime administration . legislation, and in marine environment programmes. Several women are highly placed within national ministries of transport or maritime affairs. The International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) reported the increased participation of woman in the technical aspects of civil aviation, especially in many national civil aviation training centres throughout the world.
23. With regard to social respects, the World Health Organization (WHO) has noted that although health programmes are addressed to all, and both men and women experience many of the same problems (such as inadequate resources, unemployment and lack of training opportunities), women are almost always the most severely affected. In the education sector, ECA has reported an increase in the enrolment of girls at both primary and secondary levels in many African countries. ECA has concluded that girls were still a long way from matching male enrolment figures, and dropout rates for girls are still higher. At university level, while the enrolment of women also increased, an equitable balance between the sexes has yet to be reached in many countries, particularly in the scientific and technical fields.
24. A major problem still facing women workers, reports the ILO, is open and hidden discrimination at the workplace. It is for this reason that the ILO is supporting national efforts to harmonize and co-ordinate activities in the following areas: legislative provisions and policy measures; the organization of rural and urban women workers, particularly through trade unions, which are among the most effective channels for the social and economic participation of men and women workers; the diversification of women's skill base in response to the demands of the labour market; increasing women's productive activities and incomes; the

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elimination of occupational segregation; training of women entrepreneurs; promotion of women in management and decision-making; improving women's access to land, credit, technology and productive resources.
25. The United Nations Centre for Human Settlements noted that a low-income housing pilot project in Zimbabwe had successfully included women. Women gained training and experience in community participation, learned how to set up and manage credit facilities, participated in the design and construction of their homes, and availad themselves of employment opportunities in and around the project areas. For the first time, housing allocation criteria were revised and designed to consider heads of household regardless of sex.
2. international level
26. Host operational organisations continued efforts to ensure progress towards equality. The basic premise of the Women in Development policies of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is that women around the world make a significant contribution to their country's economy, both through their productive activities and by maintaining the household. UNDP seeks to ensure that women are involved equally with men as participants and beneficiaries of development.
27. in developing its plans to implement the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies, the United Nations Development Fund for Women found gaps in the multilateral technical co-operation approaches. There was no systematic consideration of women in round tables and country programmes, where large-scale resources are committed for long terms. Women in the countries concerned were seldom aware of the procedures or even of the existence of multilateral and bilateral funding. The Fund sought to rectify this on a selective basis. Social scientists, mostly women, were added to programming and project development teams engaged in "mainstream" activities, with priority being given to nationals or persons from the region. A global mainstream development initiative was launched in order to meet the growing need at the operational level.
26. The Special Unit for Women, Population and Development of the United Nations Population Fund prepared a strategy for the 1987-1990 period to ensure that all Fund-supported activities reflect women's interests and provide them with opportunities to participate in all aspects of population programmes and benefit from the results.
29. Projects executed by the Department of Technical Co-operation for Development in statistics increasingly emphasised specific training in the compilation of statistics and indicators on women in all fields of national concern, implementation of improved data collection and dissemination methods to take account of women's contributions to development, and promotion of co-operation between producers and users of statistics on women. 2/
30. in international policy research, the Statistical Commission, at its twenty-fourth session, will consider a progress report on the development of guidelines reflecting women's contribution to development, based on the United

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Nations system of national accounts. This responds to the recommendations of the Expert Group on Measurement of Women's Income and Their Participation and Production in the Informal Sector, convened in Santo Domingo from 13 to 17 October 1986 by the United Nations International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women and the United Nations Statistical Office, and to the conclusions of the Statistical Commission at its twenty-third session. An experimental compilation of statistics on women's contribution to the informal sector of the economy was undertaken in selected countries by the Statistical Office in mid-1988, in co-operation with the Institute; the first results are to be issued in 1989. The Institute is also undertaking a global study on financial and credit policies at the macro and micro levels and their impact on women's access to credit. Programming for the current 1988-1989 biennium, as well as preparation of the ILO Medium-Term Plan 1990-1995, reflected to a large degree the goals of this Plan. These goals represent a growing commitment to the fulfilment of the mandates of the Organization, particularly as regards the requirement to develop coherent policies and approaches in accordance with the 1985 ILO Resolution on Equal Opportunities and Equal Treatment for Men and Women in Employment and the 1985 United Nations Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women.
31. In 1987, the governing body of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) endorsed an office-wide plan of action on equality of opportunity and treatment of men and women in employment. The plan only provides a framework for ILO efforts to improve the situation of women workers and translate into practice international labour standards, but also emphasises that the overriding objective is the integration of women's concerns in all ILO activities.
32. The Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) has reported that a variety of topics regarding women have been dealt with in accordance with regional requirements and with mandates, stemming from resolutions adopted at regional end international meetings, including paid and unpaid work, health, education, legislation, social participation, specific groups of women (rural poor, marginal urban, young women and others). The impact of the economic crisis on women and possible remedial social policies to tackle the worst situation are being analysed.
B. Priority them: development women and education, educations of illiteracy, employment heath, and social services including population issues and child care
33. The theme of women and development is necessarily multidimensional, multi-sectoral and multi-disciplinary. When considering women as agents of development, the issues include the relevance of indicators used to assess their contribution and hence the accuracy of the assessment, access to financial and productive resources, and most particularly, the support mechanisms necessary to enhance an effective contribution by women. In addition, as women represent half of the beneficiaries of development, their needs and aspirations must be taken into consideration in the formulation of development policies, plans and programmes. The extent to which women's needs and aspirations are met as compared with those of men needs also to be taken into account.

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34. For women to contribute and benefit fully, support measures must be in place. A critical situation is arising, particularly regarding social support. While sustainable development is clearly impossible without education, employment possibilities and good health, increasing and sometimes unnoticed burdens are Calling on women as a result of economic and social changes. Their difficulties are exacerbated by the disappearance of traditional supports and new areas of concern, such an caring for the aging, combined with the need to work outside the home while remaining fully responsible for their traditional domestic and other family responsibilities.
35. During the last decade, as the role of women as an essential component of social, economic, political and cultural development gradually gained national and international recognition, many established social support measures have been modified to support their advancement (such as tax system changes, family, marriage and property laws, family planning, child care facilities, mother and child health care centres). New benefits have been created in particular sectors (parental leave, training programmes for re-entry into the labour market after breaks for fulfilling family responsibilities, and in the use of new technologies). More action is needed, particularly in developing countries where urbanization and economic changes are undermining traditional family support systems. Increasing life expectancy will add to family burdens, and economic adjustment requires imaginative solutions.
36. Education and the eradication of illiteracy are essential tools, involving both access to education by girls and the availability of adult education to women. The enrolment of women at the university level has also increased. In Tanzania, for example, the enrolment of women at university rose from 9,7 per cent in 1977 to 25 per cent by 1984; in Kenya, the figure climbed from 15 per cent in 1973 to 23 per cent in 1984. An equitable balance between the sexes has yet to be reached in many other countries. The Economic Commission for Africa also indicated that there is increased participation of women in literacy campaigns and classes in countries such as the United Republic of Tanzania, Ghana, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Zimbabwe, the Niger and Mauritius.
37. In regard to occupational segregation, a number of projects have been initiated by the ILO with a view to focusing attention on the specific factors that reinforce and perpetuate the relegation of women to a narrow range of jobs, such as inadequate linkages between manpower planning and training and education policies regarding women) inappropriate and insufficient education and training: rigid and negative attitudes and customary practices concerning the "appropriate" roles of women; limited financial and infrastructural support) and socio-cultural factors inhibiting women's confidence and motivation. In view of growing employment needs and as part of national economic development, operational and research activities are being increased dramatically to promote women's entrepreneurship and management. Activities are being developed by the Office specifically aimed at assisting women entrepreneurs. Research carried out to date clearly indicates that women face distinct disadvantages in business start-up and expansion. A number of ongoing ILO projects are promoting women's participation in management. Under the programme for strengthening 14 major training institutions in Africa, a women's component Is currently operational, in addition to gender being taken into account

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in the other components of the projects, such as agriculture. A number of activities are aimed at increasing women's productivity and incomes and their access to critical resources. These are providing skills training, strengthening the capacity of intermediary organizations (Governments and non-governmental organizations) and developing rural women's organizational capacity and their access to resources. By providing assistance directed specifically to women's groups through these projects, it is intended to promote women's access to mainstream networks and resources such as markets, transport, improved technologies and credit.
38. A report by ESCAP on the integration of women's concerns into human resources
development, 2/ submitted to an expert group meeting to formulate guidelines for an
E8CAP integrated plan of action on human resources development (held from 7 to
10 December 1987 in Tokyo) points out that the majority of women have either passed school age, will not attend school or will become early dropouts. It recommended a broader concept of education that is confined neither to school-age children and formal education institutions nor to conventional curricula. Recent trends in developed countries suggested that life-long education may be necessary for the development of both men and women in a context of rapid social and economic change. ESCAP recommended that Governments increasingly play a facilitating role rather than solely an executing one, and that the role of community organisations, including government-sponsored women's groups and non-governmental organisations, should be increased.
39. UNESCO has for several years executed a programme entitled "Equal opportunity for girls and women in education", which seeks to eliminate obstacles to and prejudices against the equal access and success of girls and women in all areas and levels of education, formal and informal. Studies already completed or under way show a number of persistent forms of discrimination based on sex as well as programmes, measures and strategies to encourage the promotion of equality. These studies cover, intar alia, (a) the influence of teacher attitudes on educational achievement of girls/ (b) needs of girls and women in rural areas and strategies to promote equal educational opportunity there; (c) the effect of mothers literacy on girls; (d) approaches to reducing drop-out rates among girl students.
40. In this connection, an analysis of countries carried out by FAO showed that most Governments have acted to remove formal barriers to entry into school systems and to provide equal access to education for girls and boys. Several countries cited increases in women's literacy over the Last few years, with the numbers of girls receiving primary education rising in most countries. At the secondary level, however, girls enrolment was still subject to a high drop-out rate. Women, however, were benefiting from more adult literacy programmes.
41. A number of UNICEF's country programmes include priority projects to maximize enrolment and retention of girls in primary schools and non-formal educational activities and to intensify the recruitment of women into the ranks of pre-school and primary school teachers and school directors.
42. The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) reports that, during the 1987/1988 biennium, near parity between girls

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and boys was achieved in the elementary cycle (6-11 years) and in the preparatory cycle (11-14 years) in schools administered by UNRWA. About 60 par cant of the students in the UNRWA pre-service teacher training centres were young women. Constraints in increasing the proportion of women attending other training courses included the relative lack of responsiveness by employers to women applicants for posts in areas dominated by men the reluctance of parents to have their daughters trained in areas previously dominated by men; and the limitations of UNRWA's funds to expand training programmes for both men and women.
43. As to employment, EGA has reported a qualitative change since the beginning of the United Nations Decade for Women. In almost all African countries there has been a significant increase of women employed in the services sector. The proportion of women has doubled in some countries. The percentage of working women in this sector rose from 3 to 8.3 in Senegal, from 7 to 13.6 in the Ivory Coast, from 19.8 to 30.5 in Nigeria, and from 31.6 to 31.9 in Mauritius. 4/ In most African countries, the total labour force in the service sector is greater than in the industrial sector. This trend reflects the current economic recession and profound changes in the economic structure that increasingly leave to women the burden of satisfying the full spectrum of the family's survival needs. Women's role in the informal goods-producing sector, both urban and rural, is considerable in most African countries. Opportunities for women to participate more fully in the industrial sector are inadequate. During the past few years, most 1LO technical co-operation projects for women continued to be located in African and Asian countries. 5/ Many are still currents most are addressed to rural women and deal mainly with training and self-employment or both, and with income-generation. ILO indicated that, despite a considerable increase in the female participation rate in the labour force throughout Asia, most women were still concentrated in a narrow range of unskilled, low-productivity and poorly-paying occupations with little job security and frequent health hazards. ILO concluded that the situation was attributable to a number of factors: inadequate linkage between manpower planning and training policies, including measures for women; and attitudes and customary practices regarding the status of women in society.
44. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has found women to be disproportionately concentrated in agriculture, in unpaid family labour and in poorly-paying, low-prestige occupations. Agricultural development had usually meant that men would benefit from new crops and technologies with higher productivity, while women were consigned to less productive subsistence agriculture. "Women's participation in the non-agricultural labour force has, however, increased in the export-processing sones (as in Malaysia, Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and some Caribbean countries) as well as in agro-export enterprises (as in the Philippines, Thailand, Colombia, Msxico, Jordan and Morocco, among others). It should be noted, however, that women are preferred mainly because they are not unionized and are readier to accept the low wages, job insecurity and rapid turnover associated with these enterprises", 6/ FAO concluded that women's conditions have worsened with the impact of various crises. Land alienation, deforestation and environmental degradation in Africa have decreased the food, fuel and water available to women for the fulfillment of their traditional family and economic roles. In Latin America too, they have suffered along with others (and perhaps disproportionately so) from unemployment

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and budgetary cutbacks in social services and redistribution programmes. Thus, there appeared to be grounds for speaking of the growing "feminization" of rural poverty.
45. Adequate health services are obviously essential. Regional activities carried out by the World Health Organization (WHO) are indicative of trends in the socio-economic context in which women live in the various Member States. In the African region, the focus continued to be on promoting the full participation of village women in health care through their involvement in socio-economic development, using the primary health care approach. In the Americas, reduced maternal mortality, the control of cervical cancer and occupational health were addressed as priority areas, as well as comprehensive programmes for women of reproductive age. In the South-East Asia region, all Member States developed national plans of action for women, health and development that included activities related to income generation, the production of smokeless stoves, the promotion of environmental health, and improved nutrition, as well as emphasis on women's priority needs. In the European region, the emotional aspects of pregnancy and childbirth received increased attention. In the Eastern Mediterranean region, the focus was on the protection of the health of the mother and child, including family planning, breast-feeding and appropriate weaning practices, and the control and management of communicable and endemic diseases. And in the Western-Pacific region, emphasis was on improving the women's health and development data base, designing strategies for greater involvement of women's organizations, and formulating a system for monitoring the social and health status of women. UNICEF noted that the health needs of women were beginning to receive increased attention, and that there was now wider recognition of their interrelationship with this need to safeguard and protect childbearing and child care. Operationally, this trend in the Fund's development programmes (and its child survival development strategy) has called for (a) strengthening support for neonatal and post-natal care, with particular emphasis on maternal survival; (b) addressing the non-reproductive needs of women; and (c) delivering technologies to protect women against health hazards in their production and work activities. The Safe Motherhood Initiative of the World Bank, in its Women in Development efforts, aims to reduce maternal mortality through operational research, national workshops to develop action plans, and loans. There is evidence that affordable solutions can be found, given the cost of maternal mortality to children, the family and society. Safe motherhood involves health care that includes family planning, nutrition, education and women's status. It also involves policy decisions on curative versus preventive health care, rural-urban distribution of services, community mobilization and co-operation with non-governmental organizations. African Governments have made progress in carrying out programmes in areas such as immunization, primary health care, maternal health care and family planning. ECA has concluded that these programmes have greatly improved family health and women's participation. These programmes give special emphasis to activities at district level and community participation.
46. Dependant care is also important. In the increasing proportion of households headed by women, the added burden of caring for the young, the old and the disabled, in addition to being the breadwinner, can often produce negative consequences for individuals and for society. Family planning measures can help to limit the additional load of childbearing and rearing. The Department of Technical

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Co-operation for Development of the Secretariat indicated that efforts to encourage Governments to increase women's participation in population activities have met with considerable success in Asia and Latin America, but show insignificant results in West Asia and Africa.
47. The United Nations Fund for Drug Abuse Control supports activities to reduce
drug supply and demand that involve large numbers of women. Target components in
the Fund's projects in Pakistan, Bolivia, Columbia, Peru and Thailand include pilot
schemes to enhance the socio-economic welfare of rural women and their families.
In many cases, as in Colombia prevention programmes, they are implemented by local institutions involving a large number of women.
48. Street children are receiving special attention from the United Nations Social Defence Research Institute in Latin America, with particular reference to female children and the impact of violence in the family on such children. A pilot project is under way in Buenos Aires and Montevideo.
49. Many aspects of such social support measures have not been extensively explored at the international level, particularly the relationship between social support institutions such as the family and support provided through the community and the Government. The Branch for the Advancement of Women of the Centre for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs is organizing an expert group in Vienna from 14 to 18 November 1988 that will focus on three essential areas: family planning, child care facilities and the sharing of domestic, parental and other family responsibilities. It takes as its premise that, while the unity of the family as the basic unit of society must be enhanced and protected, it is equally important to enhance and protect the basic rights, fundamental freedom, dignity and integrity of each of its individual members. Accordingly, the group will review experiences in achieving an equitable sharing of domestic, parental and other family responsibilities among family members, particularly between men and women, and between the family and society.
c. Priority Them: Peace,. - full participation of women in the construction of their countries and in the creation of just social and political systems
50. Progress has been made in the last forty years in the de jure political participation of women, particularly as a result of the Convention on the Political Rights of Women adopted in 1952. Women have also made a considerable contribution to the development of many newly-independent countries and played a vital role in national liberation movements. Yet the achievement of just social and political systems is a concern of all societies. The report on this theme to the Commission on the Status of Women will focus on the active and organized participation of women in this process. As noted, the issue of women's participation in political affairs and decision-making will be presented to the Commission in 1990 under the priority theme of "Equality in political participation and decision-making". The report under preparation will emphasize the contribution of women to newly-independent countries and to the creation and improvement of social and political institutions in all countries. It will address specifically those

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aspects crucial for the participation of women in the construction of their countries, including their political participation in large numbers. The issues involved include the participation of women in national elections as voters and as candidates, election to parliaments, membership of rank in political parties and trade unions, and women's role in national liberation movements and non-governmental activities,
51. With regard to one indicator, membership in parliaments, information contained in the women's indicators and statistics data base, based on data compiled by the Inter-Parliamentary Union, shows that there has been an increase in female members of legislative bodies between 1975 and 1985, (figure 3), but the average level is well below equality.
52. UNESCO's studies of women's participation in public life and the obstacles they encounter show that in some cases it would appear easier for women to participate locally and within informal structures. Studies in Tanzania, Sudan and Canada have shown that women's involvement in collective action and women's organisations may assist them in developing skills for their political participation. In October 1987 UNESCO organised a regional meeting on women's participation in public life, which led to studies for selected Asian countries. Studies have also examined how women participate in local decision-making in Kenya, Sudan, the United Republic of Tanzania and Canada. A meeting of experts is planned for September 1989 in Norway to examine ways in which women may more effectively influence public authorities and decision-making processes. The Department of Technical Co-operation for Development of the Secretariat has also noted that Governments are allocating more resources for the formulation of policies geared to bring a larger number of women into strategic managerial levels.
53. As to regional trends, ECA has reported that in most countries of the African region, women's participation in high-ranking public offices is still not adequate, though a few have been appointed to top positions such as ministers, permanent secretaries, managers and directors of institutions and parastatal organizations. In the judiciary, the majority of women were at the lower levels. In a few countries, such as Benin and Senegal, women's participation had increased at all levels of decision-making: governmental, parliamentary, diplomatic and community. 1/ ESCWA has undertaken a technical co-operation project to activate the popular participation of women at the grass-roots level.
54. Non-governmental organizations can play a vital (and sometimes overlooked) role in many areas. UNICEF, UNIFEM, UNFPA, ILO, INSTRAW and ESCAP have all assisted national women's organizations at both governmental and non-governmental levels. For the WHO, non-governmental organizations continue to be important partners as advocates, and are key factors in community involvement.
55. With regard to the participation of women in national liberation, the United Nations Educational and Training Programme for Southern Africa carried out by the Department of Technical Co-operation for Development of the Secretariat seeks to educate as many people as possible from the countries concerned so as to enable them to play a full part in the political, economic and social life of their own countries. The Programme continued to give attention to women candidates. Of the 1,102 students sponsored, 32 were South African women and 103 Namibian women.

Figure 3. Paragraph of women in parliaments; 1975 and latest figures
Source: United Nations Statistical Office, woman's Indicators and Statistics (WISTAT), 1988.

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56. In 1988 the International Labour Organization (ILO) launched a new technical co-operation project to promote the participation of women into its mainstream projects in the southern African region. It has also developed proposals to assist women victims of apartheid, drawn up in co-operation with the national liberation movements for South Africa and Namibia recognized by the Organization of African Unity and the women's councils of these movements. At one of a series of seminars and workshops held by ILO, South African and Namibian women planned a general programme approach towards solving their problems with the Organization's assistance.
57. General Assembly resolution 42/62 of 30 November 1987 made a number of
recommendations. Action has been taken in each of these areas as a result of
intergovernmental decisions and activities by the organizations of the United
Nations system and by the Secretary-General for the United Nations.
A. Monitoring and review and appraisal
58. Resolution 42/62 reaffirmed the need for a United Nations reporting system, with the Commission on the Status of Women at its centre and based upon existing information and resources, to monitor the review and appraisal of progress in the advancement of women. Subsequently, responding to the Commission's recommendations, the Economic and Social Council modified the reporting system proposed by the Secretary-General in his report on the monitoring and review of the Strategies 8/ to form part of the two-year cycle of system-wide monitoring of progress in the implementation of the Strategies, and established a five-year cycle for review and appraisal. This was the first time either during or after the United Nations Decade for Women that such a comprehensive reporting system was established. The aim was to simplify the substantive aspects of monitoring at the global and regional levels, and to extend the review and appraisal at the national level to the whole of the Strategies.
59. For national monitoring purposes, the Statistical Office of the Department of International Economic and Social Affairs of the Secretariat completed the women's indicators and statistical data base in co-operation with the Branch for the Advancement of Women of the United Nations Office at Vienna/Centre for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs and the statistical services of the International Labour Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the World Health Organization. It was made available as a machine-readable product for use on microcomputers in mid-1988. A users' guide will be issued in the fourth quarter of 1988. This data contains over 200 statistical series and indicators for monitoring the situation of women in conformity with the goals and objectives of the Decade, the implementation of the Strategies and the priority themes. The Compendium of Statistics and Indicators on

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the Situation of Woman - 1986 was prepared using the date bate in the first half of 1985 and will be issued in the third quarter of 1911.
60. For the first review and appraisal, after consultations with organizations of the United Nations system, the Secretary-General circulated a questionnaire to Member States on 28 June 1988, to be returned by 15 January 1989. Part I consists of a summary for implementation of the Strategies and Part XI presents an outline of a national report no longer than 30 pages that is to include a one-page executive summary. In addition, the Population Division of the Department of International Economic and Social Affairs is monitoring the aspects relating to women, population and development of the World Population Plan of Motion. The Information is being included in the next review and appraisal of the World Population Plan of Action for 1989, and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development secretariat is preparing the Least Developed Countries 1988 report that will include a review of strengthening women's role as requested in the Substantial New Programme of Action for the Least Developed Countries.
61. Most regional commissions are already implementing steps for monitoring and review and appraisal. The African Training and Research Centre for Women of the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) presented a report on "Changing socio-economic conditions of women in Africa" (based on country replies and other country reports) to the ECA Conference of Ministers in April 1988. A similar report will be presented annually. The Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) convened the Fourth Regional Conference on the Integration of Women into Social and Economic Development in Latin America and the Caribbean in Guatemala City from 27 to 30 September 1998. The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (E8CAP), Social Development Division, has prepared a report on the implementation of the Strategies for a meeting of the ESCAP Committee on Population and Social Development to be held in November 1988 at Bangkok. The Social Development and Population Division of the Economic and 8ocial Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) monitors the participation of women in national development, especially through its technical co-operation projects.
62. Systematic monitoring and review and appraisal aspects are being incorporated into the operational activities of the United Nations system and many organizations are elaborating specific procedures for this, including UNXCEF, UNDP, UNRWA, ILO, FAO, UNESCO, ICAO, IMO, UNIDO and ITC (UNCTAD/GATT). The United Nations International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women has included in its programme of activities for the 1988-1989 biennium a programme on "Monitoring and evaluation methodology for programmes and projects on women and development", in keeping with Council resolution 1987/25 and General Assembly resolution 42/65. Within this programme, a survey of existing methodological approaches has been undertaken and an expert group meeting planned on monitoring and impact evaluation of women and development programmes and projects.
B. Role of the Commission on the status of Woman
63. The General Assembly, by its resolution 42/62, encouraged the Special Commission of the Economic and Social Council on the In-depth Study of the United

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Nations Intergovernmental Structure and Functions in the Economic and Social Fields to take into consideration the unique multidisciplinary and cross-sectoral mandate of the Commission on the Status of Women, which is of particular importance in co-ordinating the efforts of the United Nations in the economic and social fields towards the advancement of women. The Special Commission considered that question, as part of its review of the intergovernmental structure of the Economic and Social Council, at its seventh session from 7 to 18 March 1988. It had before it a statement by the Commission on the Status of Women on its role.
c. Programmes
64. The General Assembly, in its resolution 42/62 reaffirmed the need for the Strategies to be translated into action by Governments in accordance with overall national priorities, as well as by the United Nations system and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations. It reaffirmed further the role of the Centre for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs of the United Nations Office at Vienna, in particular the Branch for the Advancement of Women, as the substantive secretariat of the Commission on the Status of Women and as a focal point for matters on women. Subsequently, Economic and Social Council resolution 1988/18 reiterated the request of the Commission on the Status of Women to the Secretary-General to identify the Nairobi Strategies and the status of women as a global priority in the introduction to the United Nations medium-term plan starting In 1992. The Council also requested the Secretary-General to formulate a separate major programme on the advancement of women, which should include the four existing or proposed subprogramme relating to women of the global social development issues programme and incorporate the intersect oral presentation of activities called for by General Assembly resolution 40/108 of 13 December 1985.
65. The Secretary-General has presented to the Committee Cor Programme and Co-ordination a revised plan structure containing four major programmes based on the United Nations charter principles. Within the major programme entitled "Promotion of the economic and social advancement of all people", a separate programme on the advancement of women is being envisaged.
66. The Council also reiterated its request to the Secretary-General to accord the highest priority in his 1988-1989 programme budget to the programme elements concerned with policy development in support of the Commission on the Status of Women, and to include activities to this effect in subprogramme 5 on the participation of women in promoting international peace and co-operation. It reaffirmed the Commission views on the resource levels necessary to Implement its mandates effectively, as expressed in its submission to the Special Commission of the Economic and Social Council. The Council further recommended that the Branch for the Advancement of Women be renamed the Division for the Advancement of Women, with no financial implications.
67. The Secretary-General, in carrying out the reform called for by the General Assembly in its resolution 41/213, has examined the resources available to the CSDHA, but could not, in the context of the implementation of recommendation 15, exclude the Centre from the post reduction called for by Member States. All

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efforts will he made to minimize the impact of this post reduction on the work programme of the Branch. Efforts will also be made to include adequate resources for the programme on the advancement of women in the 1990-1991 programme budget, but this will depend on the level of resources available to the Organization.
D. Situation of disabled women
68. General Assembly resolution 42/62 urged that particular attention be given to the situation of disabled women, and that Governments take steps to ensure the equalization of opportunities for disabled women in each sector of society.
69. One immediate measure will be to update and reprint the development education kit on "Women and disability", produced by the Joint United Nations Information Committee/Non-Governmental Organization Programme Group on Women for the 1981 International Year of Disabled Persons. Under the leadership of the International Labour Organization and with the help of approximately 20 non-governmental organizations and organizations of the system, this will be produced by the second quarter of 1989. In 1988, the United Nations Statistical Office issued the United Nations disability statistics data base on microcomputer diskettes, containing a comprehensive collection of statistics on disabled women for 55 countries and areas of the world. 2/ Moreover, the Commission on the Status of Women, under the priority theme of equality, will review the question of vulnerable women at its thirty-fifth session in 1991. The situation of disabled women will be a major focus of the report. As part of the review and appraisal of national implementation of the Nairobi Strategies, the Secretary-General has requested Member States to indicate the extent to which "disabled women" constitute an area for the advancement of women which is a national priority, and the steps taken to implement those provisions of the Nairobi Strategies.
E. New five-year targets at each level for the percentage of women in professional and decision-making positions
70. General Assembly resolution 42/62 called upon the Secretary-General and the executive heads of the specialized agencies and other United Nations bodies to establish five-year targets at each level for women in Professional and decision-making positions. It called for equitable geographical distribution to be observed and, in application of Assembly resolution 41/206 D of 11 December 1986, for a clear upward trend to b registered in the number of Professional and decision-making positions held by women by 1990. The Assembly also requested that additional targets be set every five years. By its resolution 40/258 B of December 1985, the General Assembly had requested the Secretary-General to take the necessary measures to increase the number of women in posts subject to geographical distribution with a view to achieving, to the extent possible, an overall participation rate of 30 per cent of the total by 1990, without affecting the principle of equitable geographical distribution of posts. That objective was subsequently confirmed by the Assembly in the resolutions 41/206 D of 11 December 1986 and 42/220 C of 21 December 1987.

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71. Economic and Social Council resolution 1988/17 entitled "Improvement of the status of women in the secretariat of the United Nations systems" requested that each organization of the United Nations system designate at a high level, within existing resources, a co-ordinator for the improvement of the status of women, and recommended that each organization establish specific action programmes and work plane outlining the measures to be taken. It requested the Secretary-General to ensure that current financial restraints and retrenchment do not have disproportionate negative consequences for women. The Council further recommended that all organizations within the United Nations systems ensure greater participation of women in professional categories, especially at higher levels, in accordance with paragraph 358 of the Nairobi Strategies and General Assembly resolutions 40/258 B and 41/111, including paragraph 8.
72. Table 1 indicates the percentages of female staff in four categories of Professional posts as a percentages of total Professional staff and listed by groups of organisations in the United Nations system, as at 31 December 1987.
Table 1. Female staff in Professional posts as a percentage of total Professional staff. by types of
of the United Nations system
(as at 31 December 1987)
Managment professional
Senior Middle Regular Entry-level Percentage (USG, ASG, D2) (Dl, P5) (P4, P3) (P2, P1)

United Nations Secretariat United Nations voluntary
funds Specialized agencies Other a/ All organizations


2.3 11.7 27.3 40.7
1.1 4.1 18.9 36.6
0,0 2.l 19.8 68.4
3.4 6.6 23,4 38.1

Source: Based on Personnel Statistics, prepared by the secretariat of the Consultative Committee on Administrative Questions (Personnel and General Administrative Questions of the ACC), 29 July 1988.
73. For the United Nations itself, the percentage of women in the United Nations posts subject to geographical distribution increased from 22.9 per cent as of 31 March 1985 to 26.2 per cent as of 31 March 1988. However, the 30 per cent target was reached with regard to staff from Asia and the Pacific (31.3 per cent) and Western Europe (30.6 per cent), North America and the Caribbean (39 per cent).

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For Latin America, the figure was 29 par cant. The overall target will be difficult to achieve without the co-operation of Member States of Africa (ll.fi oar cant), Eastern Europe (5.6 par cant) and the Middle Beat (18.9 per cent) to identify more female candidates for recruitment and appointment to such posts in the United Nations.
74. From March 1978 to March 1988, percentages of women at senior levels increased as shown in Table 2:
Table 2. Percentages of women at D-1 level and above
in the United Nations Secretariat
Level 1978 percentage 1988 percentage
USG 0.0 7.7
ASG 4.8 S.6
D-2 2.7 4.7
D 1 3.0 9.3
75. At the P-5 level, there was an increase from 11.2 per cent (198S) to 15.6 per cent (1988). However, the question of separate targets at each Professional level has not yet been resolved in the United Nations Secretariat.
76. Paragraph 15 of General Assembly resolution 42/62 requested the
Secretary-General to extend the term of the Co-ordinator for the improvement of the status of women in the Secretariat to ensure the action programme set out in A/C.5/40/30 will continue to be implemented. The Secretary-General extended the term of the Co-ordinator for six months, from 31 December 1987 to 30 June 1988, in response to the Assembly resolution 42/220 C. After reviewing the situation at the end of that period, the Secretary-General decided to ensure the continued implementation of the action programme through the Office of Human Resource management and the Steering Committee for the Improvement of the Status of Women in the Secretariat.
77. In its fourth report, the Steering Committee warned that unless special arrangements could be made the current reduction of posts available for recruitment and advancement AS a result of restructuring would make it impossible to achieve the goal of 30 per cent women in posts subject to geographical distribution set by the General Assembly, and would slow down the increase of women in senior management positions. The Committee expressed disappointment that, of the nine appointments made at the D-2 level since the beginning of the recruitment freeze, none had gone to women, and that of the 22 staff recruited during the freeze at levels 0-1 and P-5, only two were female.
78. A target of 30 per cent of the total by 1990 has also been set by the World Health Assembly, and the UNESCO General Conference in 1987 called for at least 30 per cent representation of woman in Professional level poets by 199S. 10/ In 1985, the UNICEF Executive Director committed the organization to increasing the representation of female Staff to one third of the Professional category by 1990.

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79. The International Civil Service Commission (ICSC) has completed a system-wide
survey on the progress made in undertaking special measures for the recruitment of
women, to determine whether an office had been established to set targets and
goals, develop timetables and formulate action programmes; and whether a special
unit had been established to monitor progress. Of 15 responding organizations,
eight had not yet established such a body, although ITU reported that its
administration participated in the staff union working group on professional
equality, and the World Intellectual Property Organization said that such a body
was not applicable in view of its size. Organizations with established mechanisms
were the United Nations, UNICEF, WHO, UNDP and IAEA (which had a joint
management/staff committee on improvement in the advancement of women to advise the
Director of Personnel) and IMO (which had established a focal point for
co-ordinating activities vital to the interests of women). UNESCO had, on
1 April 1988, named a co-ordinator for programmes related to women's issues and had in its Personnel Department an internal committee on improving the status of women that had met four times in 1988. Only UNICEF and UNDP have established qualitative, geographical and occupational targets for the recruitment of women in levels P-5 and above, as well as in levels P-l to P-4. The UNICEF target for P-5 and above was 20 per cent; for the P-l and P-2, levels, 50 per cent; for the P-3 level, 40 per cent; and for the P-4 level, 33 per cent.
80. All but 100 of a total UNRWA staff of 17,000 are locally recruited personnel
whose occupations and levels range from manual workers to teachers (who account for
two thirds of the total), physicians and managers. UNRWA reported the proportion
of women in the locally recruited staff at 36 per cent, the lowest percentage
(27 per cent) being in the junior grades and the highest (41 per cent) in the middle grades. Many of these employees were teachers, doctors, nurses and welfare workers. At present women held 11 per cent of the approximate 100 international staff positions of UNRWA.
81. FAO indicated that it had always faced difficulties in increasing the number of women in its major programmes and activities, as these are mainly of a technical nature and relate to non-traditional fields for women such as irrigation, fisheries and dairy training. FAO has no numerical targets but has nonetheless tried to achieve a steady increase in the number of women staff members at all levels, in all occupations and at all duty stations. It welcomed the trend of increasing female enrolments in agricultural colleges in many parts of the world and anticipated an increased pool of female applicants. FAO is preparing the Plan of Action for Women in Development, which includes steps to increase the number of women it employs.
82. The Director General of UNESCO submits a report to each General Conference describing steps taken by the organization to improve the condition of women, including statistics on participation of men and women in the activities of the organization. Statistics are established by programme, sector and region. The situation of women in the secretariat of UNESCO is a concern of the organization. An official has been designated within the Bureau of Personnel to monitor the situation of women. UNESCO has not yet established five-year targets to improve the present situation.

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83. ILO Introduced a new policy in 1986 enabling poets at the P-l, P-2 and P-3 levels to be filled by qualified female candidates without competition. Its 1988-1980 programme and budget specially provided that, in order to improve the age, sex and geographical distribution of the staff at a faster rate, a certain percentage of vacancies would be reserved for young candidates, preferably women, from underrepresented countries. As a further measure to increase the number of female officials, the recruitment of spouses in the ILO was authorized from 1986.
84. ICAO reported that it was continuing to encourage the nomination of more women candidates to posts in the ICAO secretariat. The Secretary-General of ICAO had written to all contracting States soliciting their help.
85. The world Health Assembly, in its resolution WHA 38.12, set the target for the proportion of all professional and higher graded posts in established offices to be occupied by woman at 30 per cent. By the end of 1986, the percentage of such posts had risen to 20.4 from 18.2 per cent in 1984.
86. IMO has urged donor countries and institutions to support the IMO Strategy for the Integration of Women in the Maritime 8ector by providing fellowships reserved for women candidates. To date, 21 women from 14 countries have enrolled at the IMO World Maritime University (WMU) for the two-year Master of Science course in General Maritime Administration, and a further four women students joined in 1968. Similar opportunities are being planned for women to attend courses at the newly established IMO International Maritime Law Institute. The Secretary-General of the organization has allocated 50 per cent of the available places at the Institute to women applicants, amply reflecting its determination to encourage the training of women in maritime development.
67. By the end of 1986, the Director-General of the World Intellectual Property
Organization (WIPO) had a total staff of 102, of which women constituted
11.8 per cent. All vacancy announcements welcomed applications from female and male candidates. W1PO indicated it would pursue its efforts to increase the proportion of women in the Professional higher categories, while continuing to give due regard to tO specialized nature of its activities and to the need to secure the highest standards of efficiency, competence and integrity. The WIPO Director-General looked also to Member States to encourage applications from qualified female candidates.
68. The question of establishing new five-year targets at each level for the
percentage of women in Professional and decision-making positions has been the
subject of recommendations and extensive discussions in the UNIDO staff management
Joint Advisory Committee. Owing to the serious financial crisis in the
organizations, however, the recruitment of all candidates, mala and female, had
been severely affected. Under these circumstances, it was felt it would be
difficult to establish departmental targets for the recruitment of women. In this
respect, UNIDO also noted that, despite sustained efforts and repeated appeals to
Member States of UMIDO, women accounted for less than 6 per cent of roster
candidates in 1988, including women of nationalities that were already well
represented in the UNIDO secretariat.

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F. Public Information
89. The Department of Public Information of the Secretariat, as part of its restructuring and revitalization process, is in the process of developing a comprehensive information strategy on issues related to women, and a Project Manager will be appointed within the Human Rights and Development Programme Section of the Communications and Project Management Service, to co-ordinate the Department's activities in this regard. During the past year, the Department has continued to provide coverage of issues related to women in its regular press releases, publication, and radio and television programmes, and has continued to produce the weekly radio programme on women. For International Women's Day, 8 March, under the slogan "Time for Action", a button and explanatory resource pamphlet were distributed world-wide in three languages along with a release from the 8ecretary-0eneral calling for the implementation of the Forward-Lw king Strategies and the Convention. A series of radio programmes and feature articles promoting the themes of the Convention and the findings of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women is also being prepared for release later this year.
1/ E/ESCAP/617, part B.
V See, for example, the following publications and reports prepared in collaboration with DTCD-executed projects I Compilando Indie adores Socials sobre a Situacao das Mulhares em Paises da Expressao Portuguese (INT-84-R91), Report on the National Training Workshop on statistics and indicators on Women and Development, held in lalamebad, Pakistan, 2-6 November 1086 (INSTRAW on behalf Of the Government of Pakistan Cabinet Secretariat Women's Division and the Federal Bureau of Statistics, Statistics Division, Santo Domingo, 1987) and Improving statistics on Women Using Househoid Surveys. Series F, No. 48 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.88.XVII.11).
\t SD/EGM/IPAHRD/5 of 13 November 1987.
4/ Woman in Economic Activity A Global Statistical survey 1950-2000, ILO
5/ "ILO technical co-operation in support of women", Chapter 3 in The ILO and Woman Workers 1985-1988 and Perspectives for the Future, ILO Office for Women Working Quarterly, May 1988.
6/ FAO, Second Progress Report on WCARRD Programme of Action including the Role of Women in Rural Development. FAO Conference, 24th Session, Rome, 7-26 November 1987.
2/ Note by the secretariat on Integration of woman's consensus into human resource development (ESCAP: SD/EGM/IPAHRD/5, 13 November 1987), Table 7, "Women's human resources development: Target groups, programme foci and enablers", p. 51.

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Notes (continued)
8/ E/1988/22.
9/ See United Nations Disability Statistics Date Base, 1975-1986: Technical Manual, Series Y, No. 3 (United Nations publication).
10// Note by the secretaries of the International Civil Service Commission,
Recruitment Policy: Program Made in Underrating special Measure for the Recruitment of women (ICBC/28/R.11), Para. 4 and UNESCO General Conference resolution 42/162, Para 4.