Summary record of the 68th meeting : 3rd Committee, held on Tuesday, 25 November 1980, New York, General Assembly, 35th session.
|UN Document Symbol||A/C.3/35/SR.68|
|Convention||International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families|
|Document Type||Summary Record|
|Subjects||Drug Traffic, Education, Fascism, Migrant Workers, Narcotic Drugs, Nazism|
United Nations THIRD COMMITTEE GENERAL 68th Meeting ASSEMBLY held on Tuesday, 25 November 1980 THIRTY-FIFTH SESSION at 4 p.m. Official Records New York SUMMARY RECORD OF TEE 68th MITING Chairman: Mr. GARVALOV (Bulgeria) GOITERS AGENA ITEM 12: REPORT OF THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL (continued) A/C.3/35/SR.68 English Page 2 The meeting was called to order at 4.10 p.m. AGNDA ITEM 12: REPORT OF THE ECONOMIC AMD SOCIAL COUNCIL (continued) (A/35/3/Add.2, 18, 22, 23 and Corr.l, 27, 28, 33, 34, 37 and Corr.l; A/35/120, 148, 199, 231, 259, 260, 265, 266, 267, 270, 272, 273, 336, 340, 348, 263, 405, 419, 426, 431, 450, 522, 543 and Corr.l, 6l4, 622; A/C.3/35/1, 10, 11, 12; E/1980/14; E/CN.4/1365, 1366; A/C.3/35/L.52/Rev.l, L.54, L.60, L.6l, L.64, L.66, L.68, L.69, L.70, L.71, L.74, L.76, L.77. L.T8, L.79, L.84, L.85, L.86, L.88) 1. Mr. NAGY (Hungary) said that his delegation was concerned with the growing threat caused by the expansion of the illicit traffic in drugs and by the spread of drug abuse, and it accordingly gave firm support to any measure likely to contribute to the eradication of that highly dangerous evil. Yet there existed a more dangerous problem, namely, the threatening degree to which nazism, fascism, and now-fascism were gaining ground in all continents of the globe. Following their liberation from nazism at the end of the Second World War, the Hungarian people sincerely believed that the whole world had recognized the extreme peril of Nazi ideology and Fascist dictatorships. It was therefore almost beyond their comprehension that the formation and pernicious activities of neo-Fascist parties and organizations were being looked upon with folded arms in an increasing number of countries, while certain Governments openly supported such Fascist dictatorial regimes as those in South Africa, South Korea, Chile and some other Latin American countries. Sufficient evidence had accumulated to show that the Fascist regime of South Africa could no longer exist were it not enjoying support from outside the country. The effects produced by such support on the enjoyment of human rights in the southern part of Africa were clearly reflected in documents E/CN.4/1365 and 1366. Regrettably enough, precisely those countries that were always criticizing others for alleged violations of human rights gave the most active support to the Fascist regimes of South Africa and other parts of the globe. Historical experience showed that fascism did not begin with an open ideological campaign against other races , denominations, peoples or nations, but was marked in each case by a cruel persecution of progressive ideas and forces. That was true, among others, of South Korea, where the Fascist dictators had long ago established and were increasing their terrorist domination in an all-out drive to destroy the forces of democracy. 2. Concerning the question of protection of human rights in Chile, the report of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Chile, contained in document A/35/522, dearly showed that the situation in Chile had deteriorated in many respects. A series of provisions restricting the exercise of civil and political rights had been in force for seven years, and the Chilean people had not obtained any significant improvement in the enjoyment of its economic, social and cultural rights. His delegation expressed its appreciation to the sponsors of draft resolution A/C.3/35/L.61 for their dedicated work, and particularly supported operative paragraph 8, which invited the Commission on Human Rights to continue to give close attention to the situation in Chile and, to that end, to extend the mandate of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Chile. His delegation had Joined the sponsors of draft resolution A/C3/35/L.70 in urging resolute action to prevent the spread of nazism, fascism and neo-fascism, and hoped that the draft resolution would be adopted without a vote. A/C.3/35/SR.63 English Page 3 3. Mr. HORENO-SALCEDO (Philippines) said that the current sense of crisis in the world had been brought about by a disillusionment with certain aspects of modern progress, increasingly referred to as maldevelopmcnt, and the recognition of a need for plurality of development, particularly in the third world. The third world was trying to shape its fate by transforming current trends into opportunities for building & better world, and interdependence was viewed as a relationship between two parties with equal rights, not dependence by the weak on the strong. Peace and prosperity must be achieved in an environment of equality, tolerance and diversity. 14. Diversity was the key word in development - the cultural, social, political and human diversity of four continents and more than 150 nations. That concept ran counter to the theories of dominant development, based on the homogeneity of people; with interaction as a scribes of economic relations separate from social relationships. Economic planners tended to overlook the individual's sense of purpose in life and work, his personal and social identity, and his need for self-reliance. 5. The word "development" needed redefining. The notions of transfer of technology, emulation of the West and pursuit of economic growth as a means of development consistent with Western ideas, formulated decades earlier under vastly different circumstances, had proved their inadequacy. Today the third world was seeking a concept of development which would involve a change in the means and the end. The most successful development combined the traditional and the modern, as in Japan, for example. Efforts should therefore be based primarily on indigenous values, while avoiding the indiscriminate rejection of foreign values. 6. However, in addition to abstract reasoning there must be some gauge of whether the requirements were being met. The Economic and Social Council had recognized the need for improving methods of monitoring social trends and the Secretary-General's report in document A/35/340 shoved how constraints on current methodology, based on quantitative and qualitative indicators, adversely affected the process of development. It was to be hoped that an improved methodology for monitoring social trends would identify the relevant social indicators, facilitate the formulation of development strategies and provide more information on a broad range of social issues which would help to improve the capacity for development analysis and planning. Thus the necessary background would be provided for free use of institutional and social imagination in the quest for a new basis for development. ? Rural and urban differences were emphasized in the analysis of world social development, as indicated in document A/35/231. In most poor countries urban development and industrialization had ignored or been detrimental to the rural areas; political authority was concentrated in the urban areas, the distribution of scarce material and human resources was general by concentrated in cities, and the urban areas had better communications and road and greater accessibility than the rural areas. It was commonly believed that that situation resulted in increasing poverty in the countryside, lagging production, unfair trade terms between rural and urban areas and a generally inferior quality of life for the rural population. A/C.3/35/SR.68 English Page 4 (Mr. Horono-Saleedo, Philippines) 8. However, despite the rapid urbanization and the rapid growth 6f cities in many developing countries, the lack of effective monitoring resulted in overstating the urban-rural inequalities, for a number of reasons. There was no reliable information OR incomes or income distribution in the agricultural sector; many remittances from the urban to the rural areas were unrecorded; it was difficult to evaluate subsistence production at market prices; and the real income difference between rural and urban areas was overstated because the higher cost of living in cities required a higher income level. Moreover, the criteria for determining an urban area varied from country to country, thus invalidating comparisons. While rural-urban inequalities certainly existed, and efforts were made to eliminate them, they should be viewed in the context of economic modernization, the adverse effects of which were being increasingly mitigated by development plans which concentrated on meeting the needs of the countryside through government subsidies and expenditure on services such as programmes for agricultural development, transport and irrigation. Despite extensive research, the present evidence on rural-urban differentials was far from conclusive, owing to crude and limited data. It might be concluded that the number of poor people was greater in the rural than in the urban areas, mainly because of the spatial distribution of the population, but it could not be asserted that the rural poor were any poorer, even if they had fewer opportunities and welfare benefits. 9. Any change or improvement in the concept and process of social development entailed a change in mental attitudes. Education, which was a basic universal right, was the best means of bringing about change, with a view to achieving an environment of complete equality and non-discrimination. The democratization of education would start the process of conscious popular participation in development. For that reason the report of the Economic and Social Council on education (A/35/l48) was of particular interest to his country. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was actively involved in assuring adequate educational systems at all levels in training national personnel, as an extension of its original programme during the 1960s aimed at universal compulsory primary schooling and the eradication of illiteracy. However, UNESCO still faced numerous difficulties in implementing the right to education, especially in countries with specific requirements for progress and development. He agreed with UNESCO's view that education played a crucial role in development, for the two were closely related. Multi-dimensional development was deeply ingrained in popular culture and, like education, was aimed at doing away with all forms of discrimination and inequality. Change implied a review of the meaning of society, a transformation of the social code, which could be achieved through education. A change in cultural ideas would then facilitate the transformation of the social and political structure. Thus education was & means of mobilizing and pooling human resources in the effort to redefine the development process. 10. Mr. Roa-KOURI (Cuba) said that while Athenian democracy had been based on slavery and on access for a chosen few to the Platonic banquet, the bourgeois democracy of recent centuries, despite its motto of "liberty, equality, fraternity", had never gone beyond the exploitation of man by man. According to the contemporary bourgeois conception of human rights, man lived in a self- centred little world of "individual rights", anguished by the systematic erosion A/C.3/35/SR.6G English Page 5 (Mr. Roa-Kouri, Cuba) of his income, by stagnation, unemployment, inflation and death. One could only look with contempt upon bourgeois attempts to sweeten the pill of social injustice with a honey coating of so-called civil and political rights, which existed only during election campaigns. Those who had butchered the people of Vict Ham, humiliated the peoples of Africa, Asia and Latin America under slavery and colonialism and maintained apartheid could scarcely be regarded as defenders of human rights. The first goal of a just society should be to resolve the basic problems of work, health, education and housing. There could be no true Platonic banquet if it could be held only at the cost of the exploitation of man; neither was there genuine freedom, nor enjoyment of civil and political rights, if the only thing one could do with freedom was starve to death. It was paradoxical that in societies dominated by capital, including pre-revolutionary Cuba, all the means available to the ruling class stressed only so-called civil and political rights - which were put into practice only partially or not at all -ignoring the right to work, education, health, sports and culture. Cuba had built a new society which was imbued with enthusiasm and an unshakable faith in the future. There had been difficulties, of course, because the inherited under-development end the conditions created by imperialism could not be remedied overnight, but there was security in building that society in a truly free and sovereign country, where the first law was the pursuit of the full dignity of man. 11. Since the fall of Chile's President Salvador Aliened seven years earlier, the international community had seen, year after year, the disappearance of all pretence of legality in that country. The Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Chile had said before the Committee that there were no political rights in Chile and that only supporters of the regime could hold posts, while everyone else was deprived of all rights and safety; he had also mentioned the complete absence of economic, social and cultural rights and the existence of a policy of systematic denial of identity and assimilation of the Napuche population. The so-called "plebiscite" orchestrated recently by the Fascist junta and condemned by the Chilean people themselves, as well as by many political and trade-union organizations and institutions, should also be condemned by the international community as a clumsy effort to perpetuate the Pinochet tyranny, "constitutionalize" the state of arbitrariness and illegality and hinder the re-establishment of the Chilean people's civil and political rights. The Fascist junta's institutional denial of civil and political rights, subversion of the traditional democratic legal system and its institutions, and suppression of the activities of trade unions and religious organizations, which were struggling to gain respect for human rights, could not be left unpunished. He also denounced the kidnapping of Pedro Henriquez and the disappearance of thousands of other Chilean citizens. In his delegation's view, the mandate of the Special Rapporteur should be extended. 12. ' The people of EL Salvador had suffered for decades from political oppression by successive military dictatorships, which, like their Chilean counterpart, had denied the people the most elementary civil rights. The Revolutionary Democratic Front in EL Salvador, which was the true representative of the oppressed people, had struggled by every peaceful means to put an end to the intolerable situation, but the present Christian Democratic Fascist military A/C.3/35/SR.68 English Page 6 (Mr.Roa-Kouri,, Cuba) Junta, in collaboration with imperialism and neighbouring reactionary Governments, had closed all doors to the people's just demands. The international community could not stand idly by while the Salvadorian military junta committed the monstrous and systematic violations of human rights. A war of liberation was going on today in El Salvador. It was therefore imperative to denounce the intervention of the United States and some Latin American countries against the Salvadorian people. In March 1980 the United States Government had hastened to grant $5.7 million as "emergency military aid" to the Salvadorian Fascist junta to help strengthen the key role of the army in carrying out "reforms" but the word "reforms" served merely to disguise the repressive activities of the national Guard, security forces and other paramilitary groups, whose role was to eliminate popular resistance. The objective, once again, was to prevent the victory of the people, prolong oligarchic and pro-imperialist domination, safeguard United States interests in Central America and keep El Salvador under the yoke of imperialist exploitation. The General Assembly should condemn the serious violations of human rights and fundamental freedoms in El Salvador and the supplying of arms and other military aid to the Fascist tyranny by the United States and its accomplices. 13. The constitutional Government of Bolivia had been overthrown by a military coup which had clearly been foreign-inspired. The Cuban people maintained firm solidarity with the Bolivian people and their constitutional Government, and his delegation would vote in favour of any resolution which would unequivocally denounce the systematic violations of human rights in Bolivia and the disappearances and tortures suffered by Bolivian patriots. l4. He also expressed his delegation's concern about the problem of migrant workers, reaffirming its belief in the need to work actively within the United Nations for the implementation of the measures contained in resolutions pertaining to human rights within the existing structures of the Organization. The establishment of new bodies concerned with human rights, such as a High Commissioner's Office, was unnecessary. His delegation favoured improving the present bodies and procedures of the United Nations. system charged with such matters, especially the Commission on Human Rights, in order to strengthen the role of the Organization. It also condemned violations of human rights by the regime in South Korea, the establishment of "two Koreas" and the outrages committed against peoples under racist or colonial occupation, as in Namibia and Western Sahara, and against ethnic minorities in various countries of Western Europe and the United States. 15. In conclusion, his delegation wished to stress the importance of full and unrestricted respect for the civil, political, social, economic and cultural rights of all peoples and to declare its support for the exercise of the right to self-determination and independence by peoples under colonial domination, for the right of peoples to rebel against tyranny and oppression, and for the final victory of a Just society in which the free development of each individual was a condition for the free development of all. A/C.3/35/SR.68 English Page 7 16. Mr. ESCOBAR (Colombia), speaking on a point of order, asked the Chairman what criterion he followed in allowing representatives to speak. On the previous day, the Chairman had interrupted him after 20 minutes and requested him to finish his statement in one minute, yet the representative of Cuba had just spoken for over 30 minutes and the Chairman had not said a word. 17. The CHAIRMAN said that on the previous day the Committee had been considering a draft resolution and time had run out when the representative of Colombia had spoken. He had asked the representative of Colombia whether he could finish in one minute. Kith respect to statements in a general debate on agenda items, no limitation of length had been imposed. He recalled that on an earlier occasion the representative of Colombia had spoken at length without being interrupted. He would continue to allow delegations to make statements without any limitation of time in the general debates on individual items. 18. Mr. MALHOTRA (India) expressed his delegation's sympathy with the people of. Italy in connexion with the recent earthquake. 19. His delegation attached great importance to international co-operation in the field of narcotic drugs. It was a problem which affected many countries, and India was particularly concerned about the need to ensure a lasting world-wide balance between the supply of opiates produced licitly and the legitimate demand for opiates for medical and scientific purposes. The projections for the years 1976-83 showed that while the average annual demand was expected to increase by 3 per cent, supply would increase by 9 per cent; such an oversupply could only aggravate the difficulties of monitoring and controlling problems related to narcotic drugs, since there was an inherent danger that licit production would find its way into illicit channels, worsening the problems of drug abuse. It could also create immense financial burdens for traditional supplier countries. India was one such country, and it was making a heavy financial sacrifice in joining in international efforts to deal with the problems of narcotic drugs. Between 1978 and 1980 it had reduced its output of opium by 44 per cent, and that drastic reduction had dislocated the economy of individual opium cultivators, while inflation had reduced the value of the prices paid to them. At the same time the costs of effective control had been rising steadily. His delegation was happy to note that the Commission on Narcotic Drugs had agreed with its view of the need to restore a balance between the supply of and demand for licitly produced opiates and had adopted resolutions 8 (XXVIII), IV (S-VI) and 5 (S-VI). Economic and Social Council resolutions 1979/8 and 1980/20 urged the Governments of importing countries to take" effective steps to support the traditional supplier countries; so far only one country, the United States, appeared to have initiated action on that recommendation, and it was to be hoped that other countries would follow suit. His delegation had become a sponsor of draft resolution A/C.3/35/L.77 and hoped that it would be adopted by consensus. 20. He expressed his delegation's appreciation to members of the Ad Hoc working Group of Experts on Southern Africa for the dedication with which they had discharged their mandate. Their conclusions, contained in paragraphs 380-384 of the report (E/CN.4/1366), should stir the conscience of all civilized people who cherished the cause of human rights. Since the Ad Hoc Working Group. consisted of A/C.3/35/SR.68 English Page 8 (Mr. Malhotra, Inuia) representatives of all geographical regions, who were all respected figures with impeccable credentials, their conclusions carried particular weight. His delegation wholeheartedly supported their recommendation that the broadest possible publicity should be given to the atrocities they mentioned, as a means of exposing and combating the evil of apartheid in South Africa. 21. At the national level, India consistently held that economic development and social justice must go hand in hand. Unless conscious attention was paid to the promotion of social justice, all too often the fruits of economic development were shared by the privileged few, while the broad masses, particularly the most vulnerable sections, tended to be denied their due share. India had therefore attempted to evolve & strategy to improve the material conditions of the whole population, paying particular attention to the needs of the poorer and weaker sections of society. That strategy included institutional reforms, where necessary, to ensure the widest possible popular participation in decision-making processes, to reduce the imbalance between rural and urban areas and between rich and poor and to ensure the availability of at least minimum services and social benefits to. all. That task was not easy and was compounded in the case of developing countries by the highly adverse international climate for development. Actual debt burdens were rising at a time when aid flows were decreasing, terms of trade were deteriorating at a time when exports were becoming increasingly essential to survival, and the gap between rich and poor, between developed and developing was widening. International co-operation was clearly essential if those problems were to be resolved and developing countries enabled to develop. The adoption of the International Development Strategy for the Third United Nations envelopment Decade was a hopeful sign; it remained to be seen whether the co-operation and goodwill that had made its adoption possible would extend to the full implementation of the commitments undertaken. The Strategy provided a framework for tackling all issues of social development. The creation of a more equitable international economic environment would assist the economic development of developing countries, and through that process the cause of further promoting social justice within nations could be significantly advanced. 22. In connexion with the reports contained in documents A/35/231 and A/35/340, he noted that income distribution was an important element in furthering the cause of social justice. In India, as in many other countries, there was an imbalance in income distribution - for example, 5 per cent of the population accounted for 25 per cent of national income - and appropriate policy measures were being taken to reduce such differentials. With regard to the monitoring of social trends, India was studying the potential usefulness of social indicators for socio-economic monitoring at the micro level. Techniques in that field were still being developed, and they were necessarily related to the strengths and weaknesses of existing statistical systems. There were also value Judgements involved, and it was difficult to evolve objective criteria that would be relevant in all situations. In essence, each country had to determine its own priorities, policies and path of development, but international effort was vital in creating the required conditions for the speedy development of developing countries. A/C.3/35/SR.68 English Page 9 (Mr. Malhotra, India) 23. There had been a detailed and constructive exchange of views in the Working Group on the drafting of an international convention on the protection of the rights of all migrant workers and their families, which was a useful basis for further work. His delegation hoped that further substantive discussions would take place in 1981, as had been the general desire within the Working Group. 24. Mr. OZADOVSKY (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic) expressed deep sympathy for the people of Italy in connexion with the recent disaster in that country. 25. The report of the Economic and Social Council showed that in 1980 the Council had devoted considerable attention to social and human-rights questions and had made a positive contribution to the consideration of such questions as the United Nations Decade for Women, the social situation of migrant workers and the implementation of the Programme for the Decade for Action to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination. His delegation attached great importance to the work of the United Nations in the social field and hoped that the Council and its subsidiary bodies would continue to make a major contribution to that activity. It had to be recognized that the social problems facing mankind at the beginning of the 1980s were becoming increasingly acute and that, together with questions of war and peace, they were vitally important for the peoples of all regions of the world. The nature and further development of social progress in individual countries would to a considerable extent determine the future of the peoples of those countries, and that would in turn have a major influence on the over-all international situation. 26. His delegation shared the view of the representative of India that the consideration of social questions was particularly important for young independent States which were faced with the tasks of overcoming economic backwardness inherited from the colonial era, determining the course of their economic development, improving the level of living of the working masses, defending their independence and achieving further social progress. In those circumstances the experience of other countries, ana particularly the socialist countries, could be a great help to developing countries. It could be seen from the example of the Ukrainian SSR that the economy of a developed socialist States with its powerful productive and scientific and technical potential made it possible to apply on a large scale the advantages afforded by the socialist system in solving such major social development problems as those of enhancing the well-being of the people and improving working and living conditions, health care and education. In the Ukrainian SSR, State social policy in the field of income and consumption was aimed at ensuring the fullest possible satisfaction of the ever-growing material and spiritual needs of the people. His delegation hoped that in future the Committee and the Economic and Social Council and its functional concussions would devote more attention to the vital questions of social development. 27. ln the field of human, rights, the results of the work of the Commission on Human Rights could have been even more significant had it not been for the tendency of a number of members of the Commission to divert the attention of that body from such burning issues as mass and flagrant violations of human rights to artificial questions unrelated to its basic tasks. The Economic and Social Council / A/C.3/35/SR.68 English Page 10 (Mr. Ozadovsky, Ukrainian SSR) and the Commission on Hunan Rights had made a positive contribution to international co-operation in the field of human rights: he had in mind in particular their efforts to combat mass and flagrant violations of human rights resulting from the policies of aggression, fascism, colonialism, genocide, apartheid and racism. At its most recent session the Commission on Human Rights had condemned the shameful system of apartheid in South Africa and the political, military, economic and other assistance provided to the racists of Pretoria by certain States both directly and through transnational, corporations. The Economic and Social Council and the Commission on Human Rights had drawn attention to the flagrant and systematic mass violations of human rights in the Arab territories occupied by Israel and the escalation of terror and repression against the Palestinians. The repressive measures taken by the occupying authorities of Israel, including mass arrests and imprisonment of Palestinians, were frequently reported in the world press and often in the Israeli press as well. Israel must implement the decisions of the General Assembly and the Commission on Human Rights calling for the realization of the legitimate rights of the people of Palestine, including their right to self-determination. 28. A number of General Assembly resolutions of recent years condemned the institutionalized use of torture in Chile and the terrorism and arbitrary arrests perpetrated by the Junta, yet the Junta was pursuing its evil designs even more intensively than before. The report of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Chile (A/35/522) revealed that the criminal practice of torture was continuing and that the tyranny of the police and secret service continued to prevail. The descriptions of the lawlessness and violence of the Junta, provided a convincing picture of the true situation in Chile. In an attempt to improve its image, the current Chilean regime was trying to create an illusion of "liberalization" and was maintaining that some kind of "democratization*' was taking place in the country and that there was an "improvement" in the situation. Yet in reality flagrant violations of human rights and brutal reprisals against individuals were continuing on a broad scale. There, was hardly any category of democratic rights and freedoms laid down in the International Covenants on Human Rights which was not being violated by the Fascist Junta. Furthermore, the activities of the Junta had greatly accentuated internal social problems and led to a severe deterioration in the material situation of the working people. His delegation supported the proposal for an extension of the mandate of the Special Rapporteur. It firmly condemned the crimes of the Junta and advocated the adoption by the General Assembly of effective measures to force the Junta to meet the demands for an immediate end to terror and repression and the restoration of human rights and fundamental freedoms. 29. In 1980 the world community had celebrated the thirty-fifth anniversary of the rout of fascism, which had brought incalculable suffering and calamity to mankind. The United Nations had been established as a result of the desire of mankind to save future generations from the scourge of war and maintain peace and security, and it was therefore natural that it had always been vigilant about any attempts to revive the criminal ideology and practice of fascism. History had never known such monstrous crimes on so large a scale as those committed by Hitlerism during the Second World War: over 50 million people had perished and A/C.3/35/SP.63 English Page 11 (Mr, Ozadovsky. Ukrainian SSR) whole towns and villages had been destroyed: over 4.5 million Ukrainians had died. Thus his delegation felt that it was its duty to warn the world community against taking a complacent attitude toward the revival of fascism in various parts of the world. At the Nuremberg Trial it had been recognized that the criminal Nazi and Fascist ideology and practice were a threat to the international community as a whole. The attempts being made in a number of countries to rehabilitate fascism and pardon Nazi criminals gave rise to a legitimate concern, particularly in The light of the activation of ultra-right and pro-Fascist organizations and groups. Neo-Fascist groups were infiltrating the mass information media of a number of countries in the hope of securing the wider dissemination of their anti-humanitarian views based on racial intolerance, hatred, terror and the incitement of hatred among peoples. The danger of the revival of the activities of neo-Fascist and neo-Nazi organizations in a number of countries had been particularly stressed in the decisions of recent international conferences such as the World Conference to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination. The activities of neo-Fascist groups were being increasingly openly coordinated at the international level and neo-Fascists from a number of countries, as could be seen from press reports, were planning to expand existing international associations and organizations and create new ones. If peace-loving States and peoples choired the necessary vigilance and stepped up their efforts in the struggle to eliminate nazism and fascism all efforts by the neo-Fascists would be doomed to failure. The General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council and the Commission on Human Rights could make a major contribution to that struggle. His delegation had therefore become a sponsor of draft resolution A/C.3/35/L.70 and hoped that it would be adopted by consensus as proof of the determination of the international community not to allow any repetition of the grievous lessons of history and the revival of an ideology and practice directed against the right to exist of entire peoples. 30. Miss HAGA (Egypt) said that she wished to convey the deepest condolences of the Government and people of Egypt to the Italian Government and people in connexion with the tragic earthquake that had occurred in southern Italy. 31. In view of the shortage of time, she would speak on only two of the Committee's agenda items, although there were many others which Egypt considered very important. For example, her delegation attached particular importance to the right to education and had sponsored draft resolution A/C.3/35/L.68. 32. Her first item for comment was social development, which was extremely important to her country and to all countries, both developed and developing, because no country could maintain its progress without strengthening its social development. Social development in any society was closely linked to total development and should be given the importance it merited, not regarded merely as a secondary aspect of economic development All aspects of economic and social development must be fully coordinated and integrated. However, the fact that social development was a national priority did not alter the responsibility of the international community to remove all barriers to development. 33. Social development was a sovereign right and duty of all States, and the international community should not, on any pretext, impose structures to supersede a A/C.3/35/SR.68 English Page 12 (Miss Naga Egypt) national institutions. Her delegation appreciated the activities of the Ad Hoc Working Croup on the Social Aspects of the Development Activities of the United Nations and the comments of the Economic and Social Council on the working Group's report. The United Nations and the specialized agencies, particularly the World Food Council, the World Health Organization, the International Labour Organisation and the World Bank, had an important role to play in social development. The Third Committee, as the Committee concerned with social questions, should fulfil its responsibilities in respect of social development; and the Secretariat should provide it with all the necessary facilities. The Committee's term of reference covered a variety of topics. all of them with a particular impact on Social development: its activities should all be pursued in the context of the new international economic order and the third United Nations Development Decade. 34. With regard to the second item., measures to improve the situation and ensure the human rights and dignity of all migrant workers, she said that Egypt, as an exporter of manpower, attached great importance to the subject and *** followed closely the work of the Working Croup on the Drafting of an International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Their Families. She suggested that the Working Group should resume its work immediately after the first regular session of the Economic and Social Council in 1981, preferably at the expert level, in order to complete the draft convention for submission to the General Assembly at its thirty-sixth session. Such a procedure would allow time for Governments to consider and convent on the draft convention before that session began. 35. Since the purpose of drafting a convention was to consider and codify treasures for the protection of migrant workers. the convention would not encroach on the competence of the International labour Organisation but would, instead., assist ILO in its work. 36. Mr ALMOSLECHNER (Austria) expressed his Government's heartfelt sympathy with Italy in connexion with the tragedy of the earthquake in the southern part of the country. 37. Drug abuse and its detrimental effects on human beings caused grave problems which should be given serious attention. In the light of the alarming reports of the continued spread of drug abuse. Governments and international organizations should combine their efforts to deal with the social and psychological causes of the increase in drug abuse and to find measures to remedy the situation. Effective action depended on the political will of Governments, the provision of the necessary funds and resources, and the fullest possible support from Member States. 38. His delegation appreciated the work being done by the Secretariat and by the Commission on Narcotic Drugs and welcomed the steps being taken to draw up a Programme of action and adopt strategic and policies on drug control. The ad hoc meeting on co-ordination held at Vienna earlier in the year represented had a promising approach to the problem. Special attention should be given to nation prosranmes concentrating on supply, control of illicit traffic, and reduction and control of demand His country found it very cncouragian that more and more States A/C.3/35/SR.68 English Page 13 (Mr. Almoslechner Austria) were *** parties to the various international instruments, and it bore that ratifications and accessions would continue to increase. 39. His Government believed that the task of the United Nations Secretariat units located at Vienna which were concerned with the control of narcotic drugs was of the utmost importance to the future well-being of society. It was trying to give all possible assistance to those units and fully supported the appeal to Governments by the Director of the Division of Narcotic Drugs to join in the common endeavour. 40. Mrs. TASHIBEKOV (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) expressed her delegation's sympathy to the Italian delegation and to the Italian Government and people in connexion with the recent disaster in Italy. 41. While the Charter established as one of the goals of the United Nations the promotion of international co-operation to ensure respect for human rights, immediate responsibility for protecting human rights was the exclusive province of the States concerned, as was clear from the Charter principles of the sovereign equality of States and non-interference in their domestic affairs. Any other view would be clearly at odds with the Charter and incompatible with the maintenance of peaceful and friendly relations between nations. Such co-operation demended, of Course. on goodwill and understanding yet certain Western States constantly sought to use human rights as a pretext for becoming involved in the domestic affairs of other States, renewing the cold war and undermining the very foundations of international co-operation on a basis of equality. At the thirty-sixth session of the Commission on Human Rights those States had tried to engage the Commission in sordid squabbling over the so-called questions of Afghanistan end Kamnuchea. Her delegation rejected their allegations as baseless and mendacious and believed that they had served only to damage the prestige of the Commission. The representatives of the States concerned would have done better to try to solve the vital problems they faced at home, of which there were more than enouch ranging from discrimination and the oppression of national minorities to the repression of civil-rights activists. 42. United nations bodies concerned with human rights had the duty to concentrete on flagrant mass violations of those rights resulting from imperialist policies of aggression, apartheid. racism, colonialism and other forms of foreign domination and oppression. Her delegation would be willing to contribute constructively to such efforts and welcomed the feet that, despite all hindrances, the Commission on Human Rights had been in a position to contribute to the campaign against flagrant mass violations of human rights. 43. The Commission had again roundly condemned the widespread repression and persecution of the Arab population in the Israeli-occupied Arab territories and the policies and practices of the racist regime in Pretoria, together with the imperialistic monopolies; and the Hestern countries behind them, which, despite countless United Nations decisions, continued to furnish political, economic, military and other help to the racists in South Africa. Her delegation shared the Commission's concern about the further deterioration of the situation in the A/C.3/35/SR.68 English Page 14 (Mrs. Tashibekov, USSR) occupied territories and in southern Africa and supported its call for an immediate end to the glaring human-rights violations occurring in those areas. Israel's aggression against Arab States and its policies of assimilating the lands it seized and setting up Israeli settlements in occupied Arab territory, as well as its moves to eradicate the Palestinians as a nation, made plain the racist character of Zionist ideology and practice, which had been strongly denounced at the seventh emergency special session of the General Assembly. Of course Tel Aviv and Pretoria could not afford to ignore world opinion if they did not receive the support and encouragement of their Hestern patrons, Which either voted against or abstained on resolutions demanding an end to human-rights violations in the areas concerned and Which needed to cast aspersions against other countries in order to divert attention from their own complicity in the crimes committed by the South African racists and the Israeli aggressors. The time had come to compel both the South African racists and the leaders at Tel Aviv, together with their patrons, to heed the Organization's demands. 44. Despite the repeated injunctions of the United Nations, the Chilean Junta was continuing its acts of repression and persecution and, instead of heeding the appeals of the international community, was resorting to various devices, including the recent "plebiscite., to foster the illusion that there had been an improvement, while it baldly denied the clearly established existence of flagrant mass violations of human rights. The Special Rapporteur on the subject had convincingly demonstrated that repression and persecution were still going on and had even grown worse. Agents of the Junta continued to kill Chileans with impunity and were stepping up their harassment of citizens on political grounds or for trade-union activities. The whereabouts of the thousands who had disappeared after being arrested remained unknown. The overwhelming majority of the population continued to be denied its rights. and the fate of the indigenous population gave cause for alarm. Until the Junta abandoned its practices: the United Nations must continue to give its closest attention to the Matter. Her delegation hoped that the General Assembly would help to bring an early end to the violations of human rights and it supported the proposal to extend the mandate of the Special Rapporteur. 45. Flagrant mass violations of human rights Were also occurring in other parts of the world. In Paraguay, for example, the First Secretary of the Central Committee of the national Communist Party had recently been abducted. Steps must be taken to ascertain his fate. Similarly, the world had been shaken to learn of the carnage at Khangju end other towns in South Korea, where the Seoul dictatorship, propped up by the bayonets of foreign troops remaining on Korean soil in contravention of a decision taken by the General Assembly at its thirtieth session, was carrying out its repressive measures with renewed force. Her delegation resolutely condemned such repression. 46. The recent growth of pro-Fascist forces in western countries and the stirrings of group with Fascist and neo-Nazi tendencies had aroused Justifiable concern in a number of United Nations bodies. Such a trend was particularly dangerous at a time when imperialistic circles were generating an atmosphere of militarism and when Fascist elements and militarists were moving closer to each other and A/C.3/35/SR.68 English Pace 15 (Mrs. Tashibekov, USSR) making increasingly open efforts to stir up racial hatred, violence and enmity among different peonies. It was the duty of the United Nations to prevent the resurgence of fascism. Her delegation therefore fully supported the draft resolution contained in document A/C3/35/L.70. 47. Mr. SREBREY (Bulgaria) said it was generally recognised that development was a complex process in which economic and social factors interacted and should be further integrated. The inflation the employment and the lack of social Justice and adequate social security found in capitalist societies reduced many loudly proclaimed rights and freedoms to hollow promises. In a socialist society, on the other hand, provision was made for social justice, an equitable sharing of national wealth, free health services and education find a reliable legal and social order, thus enabling people to live in conditions that were healthful by any standards. In that connexion, his delegation had noted with interest the report of the recent seminar on the effect of the existing unjust international economic order on the economies of the developing countries, and the obstacles that it represented to the implementation of human rights and fundamental freedoms: and it hoped that the scninar's conclusions and recommendations would be taker, fully into account by the General Assembly and the Commission on Human Rights. In particular, his delegation supported the idea of holding a seminar in l98l on the interrelationship between human rights and the problems of peace and development. 1*8. The starting point for discussing the more effective enjoyment of human rights must be the recognition that while the United Nations should facilitate co-operasion among States in that field, the observance and promotion of human rights was above all the duty of States and fell under their exclusive domestic jurisdiction. His delegation did not subscribe to the view that the primary responsibility for the enjoyment and protection of human rights in Member States lay with the United Nations. Human rights depended, first and foremost, on the social system prevailing in the country concerned. A prerequisite for successful international co-operation was respect for the sovereignty of States and the principle of non-interference in their internal affairs, and such co-operation could be truly effective only when it was based on the principles of peaceful coexistence among States, which could be promoted by the continuation of detente and the maintenance of international peace and security. In recent years, however, some imperialistic and hegemonistic circles had *** an anti-socialist propaganda campaign with the aim of distracting attention from the real crises they faced at home and abroad. On various pretexts . those circles and sought to use the United Nations to interfere in the internal affairs of sovereign States, in an attempt to prevent attention from being focused on the real causes of rass and flagrant violations of human rights. 49. However, the proper priorities had been indisputably established in General Assembly resolution 32/120. Action must be taken in cases that had assumed international importance owing to their relationship to the maintenance of international peace and security or friendly relations between States, and such action could not be considered to constitute interference in the internal affairs of the countries concerned. The violations of human rights perpetrated by the racist regime in South Africa and by the Israeli authorities in the occupied Arab territories were cases in point. A/C.3/35/SR.68 English Page 16 (Mr. Srebrev Bulgaria) 50. There was an imperative need to end the human-rights violations taking place in Chile, which had been extensively documented by the Special Rapporteur. His delegation would continue to support every effort by the United Nations to wake the military Junta restore human rights and freedoms in Chile and it favoured a strong resolution to that effect it firmly supported draft resolution A/C.3/35/L.61. Bulgaria also shared the widespread concern at the growing number of violations of human rights in other countries, notably South Korea, where the brutal crushing of a popular uprising, the killings of students and intellectuals and the arbitrary trials of opposition politicians were designed to suppress the democratic movement and obstruct further the reunification of the country. 51. In conclusion, he stressed the urgent need to take decisive steps against the upsurge of Fascist and neo-Fascist activities in a number of countries. His delegation was proud of the fact that the Bulgarians had been the first people ever to challenge fascism. It was one of the sponsors of draft resolution A/C.3/35/L.70 on the subject and hoped that the draft would receive the Committee's support. 52. Mr. SPINELLI (Italy) thanked the many delegations which had expressed their sympathy to the families bereaved by the Italian earthquake disaster. 53. Mrs. THAHH (Viet Nan), speaking in exercise of the right of reply, said that the Chinese representative had accused Viet Nam of aggression in Kampuchea. Such accusations were mere calumny. The crimes of aggression committed by the Beijing authorities against Viet Nam were set forth in detail in document A/35/609 and similar incidents continued to occur along the border every day. The Chinese representative had also repeated his false assertions of large-scale viols-Lions of human rights by Viet Ham and a massive exodus of Vietnamese refugees. However, it had been reported in le Monde of 12 July 1980 that the Hong Kong authorities had had to take stern measures to reduce the massive influx of illegal immigrants from Chine, when half a million Chinese, including whole communities, had tried to cross into Hong Kong. The farce of the Chinese cultural revolution, which had cost the lives of millions of Chinese., should also cause the Chinese representative to ponder. 54. Mr. SORENSON (Venezuela) said that his country's position with regard to human rights was well known. He rejected the allegations made by the Cuban representative and reiterated his Government's support for the full exercise of human rights and for the principles of non-intervention in the domestic affairs, of States the self-determination of peoples, and peaceful ***. Those principles were completely in keeping with the Venezuelan Constitution, which was based on the premise that the only way of ensuring the dignity and worth of the human person was by supporting the democratic order and extending it to all peoples. The views of the Venezuelan Government had been fully set forth by the Minister of Foreign Affairs in the General Assembly (A/35/PV.4). 55 The present situation in El Salvador was the result of a long period of oppression and social injustice, though the presence of extraneous factors led to confusion and it was difficult to reach exact conclusions. He was sympathetic to the efforts of El Salvador to re-establish democratic freedom, peace and social A/C.3/35/SR.68 English Pace 17 (Mr. Sorenson, Venezuela) justice. He categorically rejected the Cuban representative's assertion that Venezuela was training troops for intervention in Hl Salvador. Unlike the country that had formulated those accusations, Venezuela had a history of respect for the sovereignty of other States and non-interference in their internal affairs, and of being guided by fundamental standards of international law in order to ensure harmonious coexistence. 56. Mr. ROME (Israel) rejected the allegations made by the representatives of the Ukrainian SSR and the USSR concerning alleged violations of human rights by Israel. He recalled that only a few days previously the Committee had heard accusations of violations by those two countries of the human rights of their large Jewish minorities. 57. Israel was unique in the Middle East in having a parliamentary democracy in the Western tradition, and all political parties, including two Communists, were represented in its Parliament. anyone in Israel wishing to complain of violations of human rights could do so at any time. Moreover, in contrast to the situation in the Soviet Union, Israel had a free press, the papers appearing every day in Hebrew, English and Arabic, and having complete freedom to publish news of any violation, of human rights, as they had indeed done in the past. Israel was an open society and even Arabs from neighbouring States could come to Israel and see for themselves that human rights were observed. Israel had a truly Western, democratic and unbiased judicial system divorced from the Government of the country. Anyone could go to the Supreme Court of Israel and would get justice, even if that led to the discomfiture of the Government. With all those safeguards therefore, it was clear that Israel had nothing to fear from accusations of the kind which had been levelled against it. 58. Mr. ZHANG (China) said that the Vietnamese representative, in her repeated slanderous and provocative attacks on China, had quoted certain newspapers; but many other newspapers had given answers to her allegations. In his statement at the previous meeting the Chinese representative had mentioned Vietnamese aggression in Kampuchea because it was a fact. Vietnamese troops were still killing Kampucheans and occupying their territory and that was another fact. Any attempt to divert attention by interjecting irrelevant issues could not cover up the facts of aggression. 59. Mrs. THANH (Viet Ham) askedt the Chinese representative what 20,000 Chinese military advisers had been doing in Kampuchea at the time of the liberation of that country. 60. Mr. ZHANG (China) said that border incidents had been aprovoked by Viet Nam. It was well known to all that the Chinese would not attack unless they were attacked. 6l. Mr. AL--GHAZALI (Iraq) questioned the Zionist representative's statement that the Zionist entity was a democratic paradise. All delegations were familiar with the racist practices of the Zionist entity and the crimes committed against Arab States. Zionist oppression of the Palestinian people was well documented. A/C.3/35/SR.68 English Page 18 62. Mr. FARIS (Jordan) said that the Zionist representative had maintained that Arabs could visit occupied Arab territories, but he had said nothing of the oppression and strict surveillance facing those visitors when they tried to visit their relatives in occupied Palestine. The Israeli press had made great play with human rights violations but had not published anything about the United Nations resolutions that were being violated, or abort people who would like to visit relatives in the occupied Arab territories being prevented from doing so. 63. Mr. OZADOVSKY (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic) said that the Israeli representative had made slanderous allegations against Members of the United Nations, including the Ukrainian SSR, and had tried to show that Israel was a paradise of democracy. However, the Committee had heard many statements from Arab and African representatives giving concrete examples of the arbitrary actions of the Israeli occupying authorities in the Arab territories and the serious violations of human rights perpetrated by Israel in those territories. Israel was persisting in its repression in those territories in complete disregard of the protests of world public opinion. The meeting rose at 7.10 p.m.