The social situation of migrant workers and their families : report of the Secretary-General
|UN Document Symbol||E/CN.5/1985/8|
|Convention||International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families|
|Document Type||Report of the Secretary-General|
UNITED NATIONS ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL Distr. GENERAL E/CN.5/1985/8 6 December 1984 ORIGINAL: ENGLISH COMMISSION FOR SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Twenty-ninth session Vienna, 18-27 February 1985 Item 6 of the provisional agenda* POLICIES RELATED TO ISSUES CONCERNING SPECIFIC GROUPS The social situation of migrant workers and their families Report of the Secretary-General SUMMARY The present report has been prepared in accordance with resolution 1983/16 of the Economic and Social Council in which the Council requested the Secretary-General "to prepare, in co-operation with the specialized agencies and other organizations concerned, a report on the situation of migrant workers and their families in which the needs and problems emerging as a result of the changing conditions of international migration will be fully taken into account, and to submit that report to the Commission for Social Development at its twenty-ninth session". The first section deals with a review of the recent trends in the international migration of workers; the second section is devoted to an analysis of major emerging problems concerning the welfare of migrant workers and their families, particularly with regard to family protection, adaptation and integration in the country of employment and return to and reintegration in the country of origin; and the concluding section sets out the most important findings and requirements for action in the field of the welfare of migrant workers and their families. *E/CN.5/1985/1. V.84-93973 1767T CONTENTS Paragraphs Page Introduction 1-4 3 Chapter I. RECENT TRENDS IN INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION OF WORKERS ... 5-25 3 II. MAJOR EMERGING PROBLEMS CONCERNING THE WELFARE OF MIGRANT WORKERS AND THEIR FAMILIES AND MEASURES TO SOLVE THEM 26-94 8 A. The protection of the family 29-59 9 B. Adaptation and integration in the country of employment 60-80 15 C. Return to and reintegration in the country of origin 81-94 21 III. CONCLUDING REMARKS 95-103 24 INTRODUCTION 1. The Economic and Social Council, in its resolution 1983/16 of 26 May 1983, requested the Secretary-General: "To prepare, in co-operation with the specialized agencies and other organizations concerned, a report on the situation of migrant workers and their families in which the needs and problems emerging as a result of the changing conditions of international migration will be fully taken into account, and to submit that report to the Commission for Social Development at its twenty-ninth session". 2. In compliance with this request, the present report assesses the contemporary position of migrant workers and their families with special reference to their social needs and problems resulting from certain significant developments, brought about by the economic crisis, in the conditions of international migration of labour over the past 10 years. 3. The report has been prepared on the basis of recent studies undertaken by the United Nations on the welfare of migrant workers and their families, information received from international organizations concerned, particularly the International Labour Organisation (1L0), the United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the Council of Europe and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) as well as national data. 4. In the report, recent trends in the international migration of workers have been analysed; the problems confronting migrants in the most important areas of their social life, such as the protection of families, adaptation and integration in the host country, return to and reintegration in the country of origin, have been examined; and the ways in which these problems may be solved and the adequacy of existing social programmes have been considered. I. RECENT TRENDS IN THE INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION OF WORKERS 5. The migration of workers from one country to another has become one of the central characteristic features of the global economic system. Although estimating the number of people who leave their own country to look for work is difficult, there are about 20 million workers employed outside their own countries, with an unknown number of dependants.* International migration by people seeking employment and a better income has taken place in most regions of the world. A large number of people are involved in movements between the developing countries themselves, and movements from one developed market economy country to another are quite substantial in some instances. Most numerous, however, are migrations from developing countries to industrialized market economy countries. About 12 million migrants from the developing world are estimated to be working in the developed market economy countries and in the high-income oil-exporting countries of the Middle East. 1/ Compared with "According to the World Labour Report the stock of economically active migrants in 1980 was between 19.7 and 21.7 million (Geneva, International Labour Organisation, 1984). the world-wide migratory movements described in the report of the Secretary-General to the Commission for Social Development in 1975 (E/CN.5/515), the present pattern of international labour migration is distinguished by at least two important factors: (a) the new situation in intra-European migration, brought about by the economic crisis; and (b) a profound change in the nature and scale of international labour migration in the Middle East. 6. In Western Europe, the economic crisis has resulted in the drastic curtailment of migrant workers, especially in the countries that have attracted the largest numbers of migrant workers, such as France, the Federal Republic of Germany and Switzerland. In these countries, after 1974, the virtual stoppage of the traditional immigration of labour has been accompanied by administrative measures to encourage migrants to return home. It is estimated that since the beginning of the economic crisis in Western Europe this inversion of the migratory flow has affected more than 1.5 million workers. 2/ This development, which has been described as the export of unemployment, creates considerable difficulties for the traditional labour-exporting countries. Being weaker and less developed than the major receiving countries, the sending countries have to face the same economic crisis and, in addition, have to contend with the drastic reduction, or even cessation, of employment abroad, the influx of returning migrants into an already overburdened labour market and the decreasing inflow of foreign currency earnings in the form of workers' remittances. 7. The employment of foreign migrant workers in Western Europe reached its highest level of about 6 million in the early 1970s. 3/ An OECD report 4/ reveals that about 5,221,600 migrant workers occupied jobs at that time, and these workers were accompanied by almost as many dependants. The largest importer of labour was the Federal Republic of Germany (2,081,900), followed by France (1,591,900), Switzerland (515,100), Belgium (332,200), Sweden (233,500), Austria (176,300) and Luxembourg (52,200). Among the major labour-exporting countries were Italy (818,800), Turkey (772,700), Yugoslavia (541,100), Portugal (528,700), Algeria (385,500) and Spain (324,100). 8. Since 1973/74, there have been extreme reductions in certain traditional flows of workers. However, the interruption in the recruitment of new foreign workers has not meant a complete stoppage in the flow of workers. In addition, since re-immigration became impossible, many migrants decided to stay in the receiving countries longer and brought their families there. As a result, foreign populations declined only in Switzerland. In other receiving countries the number of foreigners has actually increased. 4/ 9. Foreign workers made up a significant proportion of the labour force in 1982: 34.4 per cent in Luxembourg, 17 per cent in Switzerland, 7.8 per cent in the Federal Republic of Germany, 7.7 per cent in Belgium, 7.1 per cent in France, 5.8 per cent in Austria, 5.3 per cent in Sweden and 4.3 per cent in the Netherlands. 5_/ 10. It is very important to note the profound change in the composition of foreign populations. One of the most interesting recent developments in this respect is a marked increase in the youngest age groups. In all countries except Switzerland, the proportion of young people aged 0 to 24 in the foreign population is between 40 per cent (France, Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, Norway, Sweden) and 50 per cent (Belgium, Netherlands). The proportion of youth is higher among foreigners than among nationals in all host countries. This phenomenon will have an increasing effect on the composition of the labour force as well as on host societies at large. 11. The international migration of labour is of crucial significance in the Arab world. The volume of migration for employment in the region increased significantly after 1973 in response to the large scale development plans that have been implemented by the oil-producing States, in particular Kuwait, the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. In 1980, according to a recent ILO estimate, 6/ there were around 2,822,000 migrant workers in the oil-exporting countries of the Middle East and North Africa. Of these, 1,023,250 were in Saudi Arabia, 545,500 in the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, 411,000 in the United Arab Emirates, 378,700 in Kuwait, 96,800 in Oman and 125,500 in Iraq. Among the major labour supplying countries were Egypt (695,650), Pakistan (371,630), Yemen (336,145), India (280,450), Jordan (250,350) other Asian countries (168,500). Because of an increasing demand for foreign labour in the capital-rich countries of the region, the size of the immigrant population is constantly growing and, according to the latest World Bank projections, will increase at a considerable rate in the near future. In 1985 it is predicted that immigrant communities will account for 4.3 million migrant workers and 6.6 million dependants. 12. One of the most salient features of recent migratory trends in the region is the dramatic increase in the number of Asian workers employed by the oil-exporting countries in the Middle East. According to estimates based on data from sending countries in the Middle East, in 1981 there were about 2 million Asian workers in the Middle East, of whom 775,000 came from Pakistan, 342,000 from the Philippines, 250,000 from India, 159,000 from Thailand and 150,000 from the Republic of Korea. 7/ These estimates are considerably higher than the World Bank projections based on the 1975 data from receiving countries and the 1980 estimates of ILO. The vast majority of the workers from East and South-East Asia go to a single country: Saudi Arabia (86 per cent of land-based workers from the Philippines, 68 per cent of the workers from the Republic of Korea and 85 per cent of recent labour migrants from Thailand). Other major receiving countries include Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Oman, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates. 13. The crucial importance of immigrant labour in receiving countries of the region can be proved by the fact that in several of these countries, foreign workers outnumber the nationals by large margins. Their share in total employment is about 90 per cent in the United Arab Emirates, 77 per cent in Qatar, 71 per cent in Kuwait and 64 per cent in Oman. 8/ 14. The Arab countries of the Middle East and North Africa have promoted a new type of international migration, i.e. collective contract migration or project-tied migration. This type of migration is defined by ILO as the movement of foreigners admitted to a migrant-receiving country for a period of time on the basis of a work contract with an enterprise or employer to carry out in that country specific projects that by their nature are limited in time. 9/ Project-tied migration is usually associated with work camps situated away from the population centres. Foreign workers arc engaged to put up the buildings and infrastructure. They return home upon completion of their contracts. The use of project-tied Asian labour was initiated by the capital-rich countries in the Middle East in the mid- and late- 1970s because it maximized economic efficiency and minimized the social costs of immigration. 15. Estimates for Latin America are from 19 74; however, they may be assumed to be valid today. Thus, the total number of intra-continental migrants settled or working abroad is around 5 million, of whom more than 3 million are migrant workers and about 1.5 million are family members. The main receiving countries are Argentina, with 1,620,000 immigrants, and Venezuela, with 820,000. Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Peru each have immigrant populations of over 100,000. The chief sending countries are Bolivia (725,000), Paraguay (690,000), Colombia (680,000) and Chile (400,000). Nearly 30 per cent of Paraguay's total population reside outside the country, the corresponding figure for Bolivia is around 12 per cent of the total population (40 per cent of the active population). 10/ Most of the movement of workers in the region is illegal migration, much of it occurring in frontier areas that are culturally similar. It is estimated that in recent years illegal movements have increased as a result of widening disparities in economic growth and improvements in the transportation of infrastructure. 16. In the United States, it is estimated that there are between 2.5 and 4 million economically active irregular immigrants living in the country, about half coming from Mexico, and 2.5 million legal immigrant workers. The other North American receiving country, Canada, admitted 63,000 foreign workers for settlement and 74,375 foreign workers as non-immigrants in 1980, but the stock figure as defined here is not known. 10/ 17. South Africa registered a stock of 287,000 black foreign workers in 1980, of whom 220,000 worked in mining and quarrying. During that year, 30,000 white foreigners were also admitted, 43 per cent of whom were economically active. 11/ Although substantial numbers of immigrant laborers seek seasonal employment in the agricultural sector, relatively little is known about their numbers and origin. Among the sending countries in the region, Lesotho is the most dependent on the export of labour: in 1980, South Africa recruited 151,000 workers from Lesotho. Botswana and Swaziland are relatively small suppliers: in 1979, 19,-300 workers were recruited in Botswana by South Africa. 11/ 18. For the past two decades, Malawi and Mozambique have been the major sources of labour for South African mines. However, in 1974, the Government of Malawi dramatically curtailed labour flows to South Africa; after the country had gained independence, the Government of Mozambique took similar steps. These restrictions contributed to the reduction of the total foreign workers in South Africa from 646,504 in 1975 to approximately 302,000 in 1981. 12/ South Africa's policy on foreign labour places restrictions on location and occupational mobility as well as on workers' rights. 19. International labour movements in West Africa are subject to less control and are more often spontaneous than movements to South Africa or Europe. The mainstream of migration has been from Burkina Faso, Gambia, Guinea and Togo to Ghana, the Ivory Coast and Senegal. According to ILO estimates, there were about 1.3 million migrant workers in the region in 1980. The Ivory Coast is the principal labour-importing country with, according to the 1975 census, 1,425,900 foreign nationals (about 21.3 per cent of the total population). There were an estimated 700,000 migrant workers who made up about 26 per cent of the total economically active population in the country. In Ghana, there were 562,000 foreign nationals, of whom 55 per cent had come from Togo, 28 per cent from Burkina Faso and 10 per cent from Nigeria. Some 355,000 foreign nationals live in Senegal, according to the most recent estimate of the World Bank. 13/ The largest number of immigrants came through the southern borders of the country, about 75,000 from Guinea Bissau and 57,000 from Guinea. Gambia sent about 33,000. 20. In Oceania in 1980, Australia had 90,000 settler arrivals and New Zealand 42,000. The size of the foreign working populations are not known for that area. 21. From this review of the quantitative trends of international labour migration, it can be concluded that the recruitment of foreign workers remains an important factor of the world economy today. The fact that the foreign labour force has not undergone any noticeable reduction during the period of deep recession experienced by market economies in recent years might be seen as evidence that international migration is a long-lasting phenomenon. 22. For many countries migration is of vital importance. A number of the labour-importing countries are completely dependent on foreign labour, for example, receiving countries of the Middle East. In Australia, it is considered that 58 per cent of the country's growth following the Second World War was due to the inflow of foreigners. One in six automobiles made in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1980 can be attributed to the work of migrants from the Mediterranean area. With regards to the labour-exporting countries, 25 per cent of the nationals of Botswana and 80 per cent of the nationals of Lesotho are employed abroad. In Bolivia, 13 per cent of the population and 40 per cent of the working population migrated in the mid-1970s; in Paraguay, emigrants account for 28 and 92 per cent of the total and the working population, respectively. 23. The considerable economic significance of international labour migration for the countries concerned has other dimensions. In 1978 the flow of migrant workers' savings to major sending countries amounted to $US 241,000 million. This provided many developing countries with much-needed hard currency. 24. Although there have been no significant quantitative changes in the international movement of workers since 1975, patterns and conditions of migration have undergone some important modifications. It appears that, in the past 10 years, a new situation has been created in intra- and interregional movements of workers in the world as a result of the economic crisis that affected all countries, whether industrialized or developing. Among the most significant developments brought about by economic crisis are: (a) the complete or near stoppage of the traditional movements of workers introduced by major receiving countries; (b) the continuing return of migrant workers to the country of origin; (c) a profound change in the character and scale of labour migration to the high-income oil-exporting countries of the Middle East; (d) an increase in the period of residence of migrants in the host countries; and (e) the overlapping of migratory flows, i.e., certain labour-exporting countries receive, at the same time, migrant workers from other parts of the world. 25. In assessing recent trends, the increasing diversity and complexity of international migration for employment is noticeable. Some manifestations of this are: (a) Firstly, project-tied and similar migration has proved to be a growing form of international migration. Promoted by the Arab countries of the Middle East on an increasing scale, this type of migration seems to be spreading to other regions; (b) Secondly, Western Europe has almost given up the individual contract migration system that was used by migrant-receiving countries over the last two decades. Since the 1973/74 curtailment of the recruitment of workers from abroad, there have been lasting changes in the nature of migration. The closing of frontiers to all new workers has led to a stabilization of the foreign population; the employment of family members living with the immigrant has also contributed to this stabilization. The period of residence of migrants in Western Europe is growing longer.* The number of migrants returning to the country of origin tends to be declining, and there has been an increase in the youngest age groups within the foreign population. The natural surplus of the foreign population is of growing significance; (c) Thirdly, irregular migration has become a sizeable phenomenon. It is widespread in North and South America and can be found in West Africa, the Middle East, Western Europe and Oceania. With the current global economic difficulties, the interaction between rising pressure to emigrate from poor developing countries and decreasing opportunities for regular immigration might well lead to more irregular migration. II. MAJOR EMERGING PROBLEMS CONCERNING THE WELFARE OF MIGRANT WORKERS AND THEIR FAMILIES AND MEASURES TO SOLVE THEM 26. One of the main reasons for the handicaps peculiar to international migrants is that they are aliens in the country of employment. Migrant workers are generally rural residents who have been abruptly transplanted to an urban society. They have to contend not only with ignorance of the new environment but also with differences between that environment and the one from which they have come. In addition, they are subject to certain restrictions. Migrants can stay only as long as they have the right to work, and they are not free to look for employment of their choice. The reunion of migrant workers and their families is still subject to certain direct or indirect administrative restrictions in most receiving countries, which can delay the admission of families for a long period of time or even make it impossible. Above all, migrants have to face prejudices and discriminatory attitudes on the part of the population. 27. In most receiving countries, the status of foreign workers is characterized by inequality that is a cumulating of legal inequality (the reservation of certain rights for nationals only, such as the right to vote, the right to work, access to several types of official assistance etc.) and unequal treatment in practice (when the same rights extend to nationals and foreign workers but the latter are rarely, if at all, able to fulfil the conditions). The legal insecurity of migrant workers, resulting from the temporary character of their residence and the possibility of being expelled from the host country arbitrarily or unfairly, is another source of inequality *According to a recent report of the Council of Europe, the average duration of residence in the Federal Republic of Germany is 9.5 years; in France 70 per cent of the foreigners have been resident for more than 11 years and in Switzerland 80 per cent have been resident for 6 years or more. in practice that adversely affects the social situation of migrants. The unequal treatment of immigrants is considered to be one of the major obstacles to their integration in the host country. 28. The following sections of the report will be devoted to an examination of the problems confronting the family life of migrants, adaptation and integration in the host country, return to and reintegration in the country of origin, ways in which these problems may be solved and the adequacy of existing social programmes. A. The protection of the family 29. International migration for employment deeply affects the families of migrant workers, which suffer at all stages of migratory life, i.e. emigration from the country of origin, adaptation and integration into the country of employment and return to and reintegration in the home country. One of the major problems facing migrant workers' families, however, is the difficulty in their reunification. 30. In a recent United Nations study on regulations for the welfare of migrant workers and their families, the conditions for family reunion have been analysed. 14/ The study concludes that the reunion of migrant workers and their families, although it is not only widely recognized as one of the most important elements contributing to the well-being and integration of migrants in the receiving country but also provided for by a number of international instruments, is subject to direct or indirect administrative restrictions in most receiving countries that can delay the admission of the migrant worker's family for a long period of time or even make it impossible. 31. Although the laws and practices of most European receiving countries usually permit spouses and unmarried minor children to accompany or join migrant workers, the reunion of families is still subject to certain conditions that must be met before migrant workers' families are admitted to the country of employment. In some cases, family members are allowed to join migrant workers after a given period of time, usually one year. Some countries of employment require family members to be in good health. In most countries, migrant workers are required to show that they have sufficient resources to maintain a family or that adequate housing is available for them. 32. In most of Africa, both sending and receiving countries permit migrant workers to be accompanied by their families. The only exception is South Africa, where women and children from Lesotho, Malawi, Swaziland, Zimbabwe and other labour-supplying states are prohibited from living with migrant workers, except in very rare situations. 15/ For example, it is reported that in Lesotho alone, according to the 1976 census, 40 to 60 per cent of the married women are wives of absent migrants. 16/ In some of the labour agreements between African countries, only workers are entitled to transportation to the place of work; workers have the right to live with their families in the receiving countries but they must bear the expense themselves. Owing to the fact that contracts are generally for six months to two years, most workers do not take their families with them unless they decide to settle in the receiving country for a period of time after the expiration of the contract. The migrant workers themselves are responsible for taking the proper legal steps should they decide to remain in the host country after end of the contract (Cameroon, Gabon, Ivory Coast). 33. Legislation relating to migrant workers in the major receiving countries of Latin America sets no limitations to the entry and stay of the families of immigrants who are authorized to work and reside in the country of employment. Migrant workers and members of their families enjoy full equality of treatment with the national population regarding access to social services according to national legislation. The minor children of the migrant workers have the right to work when they reach the working age prescribed by the legislation of the country of immigration. Family reunification is facilitated by the similarity of climates, languages and customs and the presence of many compatriots. 34. Most receiving countries of the Middle East have adopted a policy of restricting family immigration and employing migrant workers on fixed-term contracts, with repatriation upon expiration of those contracts. In Saudi Arabia, for example, the Government took further steps to reinforce control over foreigners in 1980. Apart from certain categories of professional workers, all foreigners were prohibited from bringing their wives and children and many families already in the country were required to leave. 35. The ILO migrant workers recommendation No. 151 (paragraph 13) provides that: "All possible measures should be taken by countries of employment and by countries of origin to facilitate the reunification of families of migrant workers as rapidly as possible. These measures should include, as necessary, national laws or regulations and bilateral and multilateral arrangements." However, according to a 1980 ILO report, 17/ only a limited number of measures designed to facilitate family reunification have been mentioned in the reports of Governments. Some countries have stated in general terms that the immigration authorities are responsible for facilitating the entry of migrant workers' families; others have referred to financial assistance for the transport costs of the family members. 36. In most receiving countries, regulations and practices concerning family reunion are governed mainly by considerations of a political and economic nature, such as reluctance to increase the foreign segment of the population or to burden the national social security system and the need of industry for mobile and cheap labour. 37. As was suggested in a recent United Nations report to the Commission for Social Development: "In order to encourage the reunion of families of migrant workers, specific measures should be envisaged, through bilateral, multilateral agreements and national legislative documents, based on the recognition that, once a worker has been admitted to the country and granted residence, efforts should be made to eliminate any obstacles to family reunion. Such measures should include: (a) recognition by national legislation in the receiving country of the right of the migrant worker to be reunited with his family; (b) the setting of a maximum waiting period; and (c) prompt examination of applications for admission of the family, so that the foreign worker is not left too long in ignorance of the outcome of his application." 18/ 1. Families left behind in the country of origin 38. In most cases, the international migration of workers is associated with the separation of families, with the spouse and children or only the children left behind in the country of origin. Family members remaining in countries of origin are confronted with a number of problems. Children are often left with members of their families who in many cases are not in a position to give them the kind of help they would have received from their fathers and mothers. When one parent emigrates, the other parent has to take on additional responsibilities for the family, and as a result the education of the children might be sacrificed to other preoccupations. 39. According to some estimates, in European sending countries alone nearly 2 million children have remained behind when the father or both parents work abroad. 19/ Although the situation of children left behind in the country of origin has not been studied sufficiently, case studies undertaken in sending countries give an idea of the nature of problems confronting these children. A study of 100 Tunisian families left at home reveals that some children suffer from such disorders as poor school performance, unruliness, absenteeism, lack of attention and difficult relationships with teachers and pupils. 20/ There is evidence that separation hampers the development of children and handicaps them in their school work. The absence of the parents leaves a gap that cannot be completely filled by others, which may have undesirable consequences: poor social adjustment and a feeling of isolation and emotional solitude. 40. On the other hand, the divorce of parents owing to the emigration of one spouse may have even more serious effects on the children. According to a United Nations report on the welfare of migrant workers and their families, migration led to a divorce between the parents in 10 per cent of the families studied in Serbia (the average divorce rate in Serbia was 1.5 per cent). In some large villages in Serbia, the divorce rate among migrants even amounted to 28 per cent. According to another study on the social effects of emigration, there were 1,298 divorces registered in Croatia alone over a two-year period, each divorce involving minor children and at least one spouse who had been or was working abroad. 21/ 41. Concern about disciplinary problems and the difficulty of raising children in the absence of the fathers have been pointed out in research in Pakistan, the Philippines and the Republic of Korea. About 70 per cent of Philippine wives reported that they found the care and discipline of their children burdensome in the absence of their husbands. 42. Among the most negative consequences of the separation of families are emotional and psychological problems that wives of migrants endure. Mental illness has been found to be particularly acute in the so-called "Gulf pockets" of Kerala State (India), and women aged 15 to 25 seem to be the major victims. A main reason for psychiatric disorders is the incompatibility of these young women with their husbands' parents, which is made worse by the absence of their husbands. Similarly, it was reported in Pakistan that the head of the psychology department in a hospital near Islamabad dealt with 10 to 15 patients afflicted with what has been termed the "Dubai syndrome" every day. Over a six-month period, about 1,450 such patients were treated in one hospital alone. The patients suffered from a variety of psychosomatic illness, and the younger patients experienced a high degree of sexual frustration. 22/ 43. Many studies undertaken on the situation of separated families in Burkina Faso, Lesotho, Swaziland and the United Republic of Tanzania have shown that migration from poorer households has left families vulnerable to crisis and tends to restrict their production capabilities. It also leads to the situations in which women, children and old people are obliged to take over work that is usually done by young and adult males, such as agricultural tasks. 44. Measures taken by the countries concerned on behalf of families left behind in the country of origin have been designed to ensure that they are taken care of materially. Practically all bilateral agreements between labour exporting and importing countries include provisions on the transfer of the remittances to migrant workers' families. In some countries, the remittance of a fixed percentage of the salary of migrant workers to their families is mandatory. For example, average Asian workers in the Middle East remit more than 50 per cent (and often as much as 70 to 90 per cent) of their total earnings to their families. 45. Another part of the income of families remaining in the country of origin is child allowances, which are transferred in accordance with bilateral and multilateral agreements. In accordance with the Nordic Council's first convention on social security, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden pay family allowances at the same rate whether or not the children reside in the Nordic Council country in which the migrant works. The same principle applies in regulations concerning foreign workers belonging to States members of the European Economic Community (EEC), with some exceptions. France has bilateral agreements with Greece, Morocco, Portugal, Spain, Yugoslavia and a number of African countries. Under the agreements, family allowances are paid at the rate prevalent in those countries. For certain countries, the payment of French allowances is limited to four children. In other countries (Portugal, Spain, Yugoslavia), payment is made from the second child onwards, corresponding to the conditions for family allowances entitlement in France. In the Federal Republic of Germany, family allowances for children left behind have been considerably reduced since 1975. Since 1980, allowances are no longer paid for children remaining in Turkey. In the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, family allowances are not transferable to children left behind. In the Netherlands, all migrants have the right to transfer family allowances to their children living outside the Netherlands. Under bilateral agreements signed by Switzerland with Greece, Italy, Spain and Turkey, transfer of allowances to children in the countries of origin is provided for if the father is an agricultural worker or a small farmer. Yugoslav workers can transfer allowances at the Swiss rate to all their children. 46. In Africa, family benefits are generally granted only for children residing in the country where the worker is employed. In some cases, surviving dependants may even lose all entitlement to pensions for employment injuries if they were living outside the receiving country at the time of injury. As regards disability, old age and general survivor's pensions, the laws in many countries prescribe the suspension of benefits if the recipient ceases to reside in that country. The difficulties encountered by the migrants and their families when benefits are suspended can be easily seen. 47. In Latin America, in accordance with the agreements concluded by Argentina with Chile (1971) and Uruguay (1974) on social security, family allowances are paid to the migrant workers only if their families live with them in the country of employment. The same principle is applied in bilateral agreements concluded between Chile and Paraguay. 48. Discrepancies can be seen in the treatment of children of migrant workers, in which those left in the home country are often not entitled to receive the same benefits as those who live with their parents abroad. 49. In most countries of origin, the families of migrant workers can benefit from services that are available to the population as a whole. However, little has been done so far to introduce specific measures for the social protection of migrants. In most sending countries, national legislation and regulations and bilateral agreements include no mention of rights that should be enjoyed by the members of separated families. Yugoslavia seems to be the only country that has taken definite steps in this direction. According to the law on the basic conditions of temporary employment and protection of Yugoslav citizens working abroad and other legal and administrative regulations adopted on the basis of that law, workers seeking employment abroad must first obtain from the Yugoslav Employment Office a guarantee that the members of their families left behind will be looked after materially and that their children will be brought up normally. In addition, efforts have been made to improve bilateral and multilateral instruments with a view to simplifying procedures for migrants to meet their material obligations towards their families left in the country of origin (payment of living allowances to mothers and children, sickness insurance etc.). 50. The lack of funds and the necessity to meet the more pressing needs of the population at large often prevent countries of origin from taking specific measures to deal with social problems of families of migrant workers left behind. With regard to the welfare of families left behind, a number of problems deserve consideration: (a) the hardship involved for families when remittances are irregular or fail altogether; (b) the judicious use of the income derived from work abroad to meet immediate and long-term needs of the migrant workers' family; (c) information regarding social security and other rights and assistance in claiming benefits; (d) communication with the authorities and the migrant worker abroad; and (e) the rearing of children, family counseling etc. More organized efforts will be needed in sending countries to deal with these problems. 2. Migrant families in the country of residence 51. Despite difficulties, a large proportion of migrant workers do reunite with their families in the country of employment. It was estimated in 197*, that at least half of the married migrants in European receiving countries lived with their families. It is reasonable to believe that this proportion could be larger at present because, since the 1973 freeze on the recruitment of people who are not nationals of EEC countries, authorities in major European countries of employment have permitted family reunion, although with certain limitations. 52. After a period of separation, families of migrant workers often have to adjust to a new, strange and sometimes hostile environment. The migrant family is affected by isolation and loneliness, and language problems restrict opportunities to become acquainted with the culture and customs of the host country. Because the main concerns of migrants are employment and earnings, educational opportunities take secondary place. 53. One of the problems stressed by some researchers is the different rates at which family members adapt to a new society. It has been noted that children adapt more easily than their parents to a new culture. As a consequence of this and other factors of migrant life, migrant parents have less control over their children than their local neighbors and much less control than they would have had in the country of origin. 23/ As a result, the bonds between parents and children are weakened. The children often have no interest in, or sometimes openly reject, the "inferior" culture of the parents, which can lead to a lack of communication or even conflict between generations. Problems of communication in families are considered to be very serious. If both parents are working, they have too little time to deal with their adolescent children's problems. Special difficulties may arise because young people cannot find work or have no vocational training; as a result, many young people leave the family circle. 54. The relationship between husbands and wives also changes as a result of the new situation in the country of employment. The data on difficulties with reunification indicate that after a long separation, the husband, who has gained independence, may find it difficult to readjust to family life. As a consequence, family separation as well as family reunion provoke family crises, which some families manage to overcome but others do not. 23/ 55. Migrants' wives have special problems. Wives have to adapt to cultural patterns in the broad sense, such as the total life-style, family planning practices etc., as well as to the language of the country of employment. In household tasks, wives have to cope with different foods and different patterns of consumption. However, the most pronounced problem confronting wives is social isolation in the host country. The social isolation of migrant wives is considered to be much larger than that of husbands or children who are integrated through their work or schools. Wives from some Moslem countries find themselves in an especially difficult situation: in the home country they were integrated into an extended family and in Europe they live in a nuclear family. As a result, in addition to some hardships common to all migrants, these wives have the sole responsibility for the household and care of the children, while in their home countries they were accustomed to sharing such responsibilities with other women. 56. In addition to the internal problems of the migrant family in the country of employment noted above, the family as a group has to cope with external factors, i.e., its integration in society in terms of housing, culture, social welfare services, schooling for the children etc. Some of these factors, such as housing and social welfare services, have been given much attention in many international studies* and for this particular reason are not analysed in this report. It should be stressed that many migrant families can be categorized as deprived families; many of their problems are inherent in this social group and, in addition, are aggravated by cultural differences and discrimination. 57. Some researchers who have analysed programmes for migrant workers in receiving countries point out that specific problems of the migrant family as a unit have not been given proper attention in these programmes, which are designed to integrate migrants as individuals and not as family units. In recent years, a number of measures have been taken for the integration of migrant workers' children, but there are no comprehensive policies and *See, for example, "Pertinent regulations concerning the welfare of migrant workers and their families", Report of the Secretary-General to the Commission for Social Development (E/CN.5/1983/10), pp. 12-17. programmes designed to facilitate the integration of migrant families. There is an apparent lack of systematic studies and research on migrant families. As a result, the migrant family to some extent remains an unknown quantity for policy-makers. 58. Churches and some non-governmental organizations have been very active in recent years in attracting the attention of Governments of receiving countries to the specific problems of migrant families. They maintain that the individualistic approach to the integration of migrants that is pursued by some receiving countries is inconsistent with a realistic integration policy. The family is more than a group of individuals, and if its members are to be successfully integrated in the host society measures should be aimed at the family as a unit. Unless the migrants' families are taken into account, there can be no effective integration policy. 24/ In this sense, international organizations dealing with the welfare of migrant workers and their families, whether governmental or non-governmental, have an important role to play in drawing the attention of researchers and social planners in sending and receiving countries to the problems confronting the migrant family at all stages of the so-called "migratory chain", in order to provide Governments with policy options designed to protect families as a fundamental unit of society. 59. Responsible government authorities should pay more attention to the elimination of obstacles that may impede the reunification of migrant workers' families and their integration into the host society. Possible actions in this respect might be: (a) Developing major constructive programmes in accordance with the country's needs, taking into consideration specific needs of migrant workers and their families, guaranteeing the migrant worker equality of treatment with national workers with regard to access to state-subsidized housing and providing financial facilities wherever possible for low-cost housing for migrant workers and their families; (b) Improving infrastructural services, such as educational facilities for children of migrant workers, taking Into account their specific needs; proper Information and reception structures for families, Including facilities for leisure-time activities for family members; social security provisions, such as family allowances; and maternity grants or health insurance for family members; (c) Providing financial assistance in the form of either the partial payment of the family travel costs or an allowance to offset the additional expenses Incurred by the family's arrival. B. Adaptation and Integration in the country of employment 60. In Europe, In spite of the fact that there has been slow but steady progress In recent years towards Improving the economic and social position of migrant workers and their families, there are still many problems to be solved. One of the most serious problems Is the social Integration of the estimated 7 million children of migrant workers presently living In Western Europe. These young people, who account for an Increasing share of school children In the major European countries of employment, have found themselves In Increasingly difficult situations. As a recent OECD study notes, the home and social environment and de facto status of many young people do not encourage them to profit fully from the education and training they might receive. Thus, young workers of foreign origin are now the most vulnerable of all demographic groups to unemployment. 25/ In addition, in recent studies they have been described "rootless" because they feel foreign both in their country of residence and in the country of origin. 61. Shortcomings in the education of foreign children have been studied by various research institutes in major receiving countries in Europe as well as by international organizations concerned and have been described in many reports. In general, these shortcomings include the following: (a) Firstly, there is a lack of education at the pre-school level. All of the data available on the subject in major European receiving countries reveal that the majority of migrant children do not receive any pre-school education. For example, according to a report by Turkey for the ILO Tripartite Technical Seminar on Second Generation Migrants (1981), only 28 per cent of the children of Turkish migrants in the Federal Republic of Germany attend kindergarten, compared to 70 per cent of German children. Moreover, the effectiveness of pre-school education is to a great extent diminished by the fact that special language training programmes for immigrant children in kindergarten are poorly developed, particularly with respect to the mother tongue of the child. This negatively affects the child's ability to learn the language of the receiving country as well as the child's pride and self-esteem; (b) Secondly, although as a rule national legislation on compulsory schooling in the receiving country applies to children of migrant workers, a large number of migrant children of compulsory school age do not continue their education at all, for various reasons. Their number was estimated to be 300,000 in 1975. 26/ Although the situation with respect to compulsory education of immigrant children has improved in recent years, it is far from satisfactory. In the Federal Republic of Germany, 20 per cent of migrant children do not comply with compulsory schooling; 27/ (c) Thirdly, migrant children who receive compulsory education usually perform very poorly. In the Federal Republic of Germany, according to official data, more than half of all foreign children fail to earn a post-primary education certificate. 28/ In Berlin (West), some 90 per cent of children of migrant workers do not finish their post-primary education. 29/ Migrant children are over represented in those types of education that are usually offered to the educationally disadvantaged. For example, in Yugoslavia, children in special teaching establishments or in the special classes at normal schools account for 3 per cent of the total number of pupils, while 14.5 per cent of Yugoslav children living abroad are in special classes or establishments. 30/ In addition, earlier research has shown that a large proportion of foreign children were placed in classes with younger children, which slows their development and limits their educational achievements. 62. Owing to the high scholastic failure rate in compulsory schools, the percentage of immigrant children is much lower than that of native children in secondary education. In France, 80 per cent of foreign children have to repeat a year in schools when they are oriented towards continuation on to secondary schooling, while the corresponding figure for French children is 48 per cent. 31/ In Belgium, according to a recent study, only 30 per cent of foreign children who complete their studies in the compulsory schools continue their education in the upper-secondary schools. In the Federal Republic of Germany, only 6 per cent of foreign children follow secondary education (the Realschule or Gymnasium). 63. In recent years, evident progress has been made in the education of children of migrant workers in most European receiving countries. However, measures taken so far in this area have been limited compared to the actual educational needs of immigrant children. Foreign children are not able to enjoy equality of opportunity in education for the following reasons: (a) the low socio-economic origin of these children, whose parents are mainly unskilled workers; (b) the cultural conflicts that the migrants' children experience in the society of the receiving country; and (c) the constant insecurity felt by immigrant families in the receiving countries in terms of employment and residence. 64. In addition, migrant children are at a disadvantage because the educational system is not fully adapted to their educational needs. The educational system is influenced by the uncertainty about the ultimate goal of the education of children of migrants, i.e., is the system aimed at integrating foreign children in the receiving country, preparing them for eventual return to the country of origin or giving them a kind of "life insurance" by preparing them for life in both countries? 65. The goal is generally viewed as providing migrant children with a genuine opportunity for integration in the host country while preserving close ties with the country of origin in order to make reintegration easier should they return to the country of origin. Moreover, research findings enable policy-makers to fully understand the rationale of teaching in the mother tongue of the child, which is now considered not only a vitally important element of education in case of eventual return but also a tool for counteracting the poor educational performance, a means of stabilizing the personality of the child. Some receiving countries (namely the Netherlands and Sweden) have adopted a multicultural educational policy favoring education in the mother tongue. Wider recognition of such a policy approach to education of immigrant children would be a step in the right direction. 66. In order for the whole educational system to be successful in providing children of migrant workers with truly bicultural teaching, efforts should be intensified to improve the education of migrant children in three major areas: introductory teaching, mother-tongue instruction and teacher training. 67. With regards to vocational training, all available data reveal that young migrants are under-represented in vocational training courses offered in most European receiving countries and are over-represented in courses that lead to semi-skilled jobs. A recent OECD study on the employment situation of young migrants in Europe shows that the great majority of employed migrants under 25 years of age are manual workers, including apprentices: 70 per cent in Sweden; more than 75 per cent in Belgium; and nearly 85 per cent in France and the Federal Republic of Germany. The breakdown by sex shows that this proportion reaches 90 per cent for adolescent males in France and the Federal Republic of Germany. 32/ The study specifically draws conclusions on the inferior situation of second-generation migrants before and after their entrance into working life. During the schooling and the subsequent training on which their occupational future depends, the language obstacle is always present for migrants in asking for guidance or approaching the authorities in search of a job. Opportunities for access to the public education and training system, which is open to both nationals and foreigners, is liable to remain theoretical or to concern only a limited number of young migrants unless certain specific actions are taken. 68. The low level of education and lack of vocational training have put young migrants at a disadvantage when entering the labour market. All data on the employment situation of young foreigners in Europe lead to the conclusion that, in the present time of economic crisis, they are much more vulnerable to unemployment than national youth. In the Federal Republic of Germany in the period between September 1978 and September 1980, for example, unemployment among young foreigners under 25 years of age rose by 10.1 per cent while the number of nationals unemployed in the same age group decreased by 11.4 per cent. According to the latest SOPEMI report, the employment situation continued to deteriorate between September 1980 and April 1981. Unemployment among all foreign workers in this period rose from 4.8 to 7.1 per cent. In France, the total number of unemployed increased by more than 50 per cent between March 1978 and March 1981, while among the young foreigners under 25 years of age there was an 88.7 per cent increase in unemployment. In Sweden in 1980, the unemployment rate for young foreigners between the ages of 20 and 24 was 6.4 per cent, as compared with 3.7 per cent for the total active population. 33/ 69. The situation in Africa differs from country to country; as a rule both national and migrants' children are registered at compulsory schools, where they exist. However, problems arise where migrants are concentrated in one place. It is not certain that the Governments of receiving countries will build more schools to accommodate migrants' children, if such schools were not foreseen when other schools were planned and built. Not many studies are available, but it can be expected that even if migrant children have more opportunities for education in the immigration country than in their own country they are less fortunate than nationals who, because of their social network, get places in school more easily. 34/ If the schooling has to be paid for, migrants' children may be at a disadvantage because their parents are not always able to pay the fees owing to the financial situation of migrants. 70. In Latin America, children of migrant workers have the same access to education at all levels as the children of the receiving country. The absence of significant language differences in Latin American countries makes the educational integration of immigrant children easier. However, since school systems are not designed for the children of migrants, such children may run the risk of being isolated because they are unfamiliar with the culture of the country of origin; they may even be given an adverse image of that culture. In their eagerness to communicate children may reject the culture of their parents and adopt that of the receiving society, which may estrange children from parents. 71. One of the most pronounced problems confronting migrant workers and their families is cultural and national identity, which is particularly critical at the time when adolescence begins. In many receiving countries the cultural identity of second-generation migrants is formed under conditions of conflict. On the one hand, the school, the mass media, life-styles and many other factors induce young migrants to adopt the culture of the host country. On the other hand, the language barrier and discrimination at school and in society contribute to the marginality of the second generation. This marginality, as well as the cultural influence of the family, make the culture of the country of origin (language, traditions, forms of social life) present as a reality in the host country. 72. Some social scientists believe that only contact with both cultures, or better cultural pluralism, will enable young foreigners to choose the culture that suits them best or to achieve their identity with elements from the cultural expression and language of both countries. In any case, it is extremely important that both the receiving country and the country of origin provide young migrants with all possible assistance in the preservation and propagation of the culture of the country of origin. 73. As far as European receiving countries are concerned, various programmes are being implemented by governmental bodies and private organizations in co-operation with the countries of origin to help migrants preserve their national culture. In France, for example, associations of immigrants receive subsidies from the "Funds d'Action social" for various types of activities designed to promote the culture of the home country. Some sending countries (Morocco, Portugal and Senegal) regularly arrange drama tours. Radio and television programmes in the migrants' mother tongue are produced. In addition, sending countries supply municipal libraries and local associations with books and magazines in the sending country's language. In the Federal Republic of Germany, local radio stations broadcast daily 40-minute programmes prepared by the Turkish Radio and Television Association; there is also a weekly television programme in Turkish. The major Turkish newspapers are available for the immigrant community. In several regions of the country, Turkish cultural centres have been established. In Sweden, the Government contributes to the production of literature in foreign languages and also provides public libraries with funds for purchasing literature from sending countries. 74. Various services in receiving countries have been established by the countries of origin. In the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece has established several facilities, such as the Greek Orthodox Church, the International Meeting House, the Department of Foreign Residence and the Youth Service, which are active in providing services for foreign children in the field of social welfare and culture. Yugoslavia gives considerable attention to the preservation of the cultural and national identity of its nationals working abroad through its active support to migrants' clubs and associations. There are an estimated 900 associations of Yugoslav citizens in Europe. Yugoslavia has established seven cultural and information centres in Western European receiving countries as well as various delegations to help migrant workers and their families in solving their many problems in maintaining cultural links with the country of origin. Links are also maintained with the sending country through the organization of travel to the country of origin. In 1980 alone, about 3,500 migrant workers' children visited Yugoslavia in an organized manner, and the number was doubled in 1981. Italy, Spain and some other countries have set up cultural and information centres that broadcast special radio and television programmes in collaboration with national broadcasting corporations and video centres. The cultural centres also distribute local newspapers, magazines, books and brochures and organize national and religious holidays or festivals and visits by travelling theatre groups or exhibitions. 75. In Africa, there are special programmes on television and radio broadcasts in the migrants' languages in some countries. In Ghana, the Ivory Coast, Nigeria and Senegal programmes feature news and cultural events in the languages of the migrants. In many instances, because of the common languages between receiving and sending countries, the migrants also benefit from programmes given in these languages. Assistance to migrants' associations and cultural or sports societies is mostly at the private level. Migrants have associations that, inter alia, organize social events to keep alive their cultural heritage and to keep migrants, especially children, in touch with their beliefs and customs. 76. No systematic effort is made in the Latin American countries to maintain the links of emigrants and their families with the country of origin. On the contrary, disapproval is usually shown when the various groups celebrate their countries' independence day, because this is assumed to be a symptom of non-integration into the host country. As a rule the only recognition of the immigrants' culture consists of celebrations at which migrants wear their national dress, perform national dances and songs or serve national dishes. The most widespread expression of the migrants' cultural identity is the organization of community associations. However, such associations do not receive official support in carrying out their activities; as a rule they have to rely on members' subscriptions. Religious organizations also help migrants preserve their culture. 77. It should be noted that despite the fact that a number of measures have been tried by receiving countries in recent years to facilitate the social integration of migrant populations, these measures have not led to any noticeable progress. De facto social isolation is a reality of everyday life for migrant workers and their families and is conditioned by the interplay of economic, cultural and social aspects of the problems posed and experienced by foreign workers. As a recent report by the Council of Europe notes: "Low pay and difficulty in effectively communicating with the local population leads to their occupying very cheap slum accommodation and choosing public meeting places (bars, squares, stations) where groups of the same race tend to gather. These turn into ghettos where extreme poverty leads to despair and crime." 35/ 78. Of course for children of migrant workers, education in the host country ought to be instrumental in bridging the gap between them and the local population. However, as indicated above, this is not always the case. Owing to their cultural environment and their poor knowledge of the host country's main language, the children of migrant workers often have great difficulty in adapting. If the teachers devote the necessary amount of time to these children, they are accused of holding up the normal progress of the class as a whole, and schools with high percentages of foreign pupils are accordingly deserted by the local children. This leads to the isolation of migrant children at school. In many receiving countries, disparities between the situations of national and foreign pupils in education persist. 79. The situation of migrant populations is further aggravated by a growing intolerance of the presence of migrant workers in the major receiving countries. In Switzerland, a government bill advocating the consolidation of the acquired rights of migrant workers, which was submitted to a referendum of 6 June 1982, was rejected. In France, as The Economist reports, "racial tension boils up" while some politicians attack immigrants as creators of unemployment and a menace to social peace. 36/ Hostility towards foreigners has led to some places to violence. There have been street battles in Brixton, near London, and Liverpool. In Belgium, France and the Federal Republic of Germany, cases of violent attacks on migrant workers have been reported. 80. Concerned with the outbursts of xenophobia in various European countries, the Council of Europe emphasized the need for strengthening the role of public authorities in combating this problem as well as in implementing the rights of migrants, as granted in international instruments, particularly with regard to accommodation, schooling, occupational and linguistic training, teaching of the mother tongue, working conditions, social security and social welfare. Such measures would make it possible to avoid the dramatic consequences of maladjustment and footlessness. The need for launching a campaign to make the public aware of the problem was also been stressed. This campaign should be conducted by public authority s with the collaboration of all associations concerned and also by the mass media. 37/ C. Return to. and reintegration in, the country of origin 81. In recent years, wider recognition by some sending and receiving countries of their common interest in solving problems concerning the reintegration of returning migrants has led to the conclusion of bilateral agreements stipulating joint actions in this field. 82. According to an agreement between the Federal Republic of Germany and Turkey, a vocational training programme has been started to prepare Turkish workers to manage their own enterprises upon return to Turkey. Under this agreement, a special fund has been established to extend credit to investment projects of migrants who have returned to Turkey. The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany is obliged to ensure transfer of technology, consultancy and assistance in production and running the migrants' industrial plants. The Turkish Government is bound to grant customs and other benefits to those importing equipment for these plants. Since 1972, some 60 million deutsche mark (DM) were made available for direct incentives for the reintegration of Turkish workers, which were granted in the form of counselling, planning aids and further training as well as for loans, interest and administrative expenses. Workers' companies currently run 140 firms in different branches. Bearing in mind secondary and tertiary effects, it is estimated that 34,000 jobs were created. So far, about 2,400 Turks returning from the Federal Republic of Germany have found employment in this way. 38/ The Federal Government recently decided to give financial incentives to increase the willingness of foreigners to return to their home countries. 83. Under an agreement signed in 1980 between Algeria and France on the return of migrants, the Government of France is bound to pay a compensation equal to four average monthly wages to each returnee to Algeria who has worked in France for at least six months before applying for such compensation and to pay the travel expenses of the returning workers and their dependants. The Government of Algeria is obliged to continue and, if necessary, reinforce the policy of customs and tax benefits for returnees and make it easier for them to resolve their housing problems with the financial support of the French Government. 84. In Yugoslavia, a special fund for financing increased employment in economically underdeveloped and emigration regions was set up in 1978 with the aim of selecting the investment programmes to be financed and implemented jointly by Yugoslavia and countries receiving Yugoslav workers. Within the framework of activities of the Fund so far, the Government of the Netherlands has granted financial assistance of 6 million Netherlands guilders for implementation of two investment projects in Yugoslavia. In 1980-1981, the Fund selected more than 50 projects to be implemented in underdeveloped and emigration regions of Yugoslavia, and since then it has been making great efforts to ensure co-operation with the receiving countries in realizing these projects. 39/ 85. Some initial steps have been made to develop international co-operation in working out and implementing programmes for the successful return and reintegraton of migrants. OECD has undertaken research to assess the experiences of individual countries of origin in ways of attracting and utilizing migrants' savings as well as the nature and scope of services for the reintegration of migrants. An OECD project entitled "Experimental schemes for employment creation in high emigration regions" is designed to identify the possibilities for bilateral co-operation in migrant reintegration in the country of origin. The Council of Europe has carried out intensive research and activities designed to improve the education and social position of young migrants. In addition, the Council provides financial assistance to countries of origin in implementing reintegration schemes through its Resettlement Fund. 86. Some of the measures that were unilaterally introduced by several receiving countries, such as individual financial assistance to migrant workers who voluntarily return to the country of origin, soft credits for returning migrants to implement specific projects in the country of origin and schemes for vocational re-training of migrants, have not been successful. Only a comparatively small number of migrants have been able to benefit from such forms of assistance, and migrant workers in general are reluctant to accept such aid because for them it means replacing the uncertainty of migration with the even greater uncertainty of return. 87. In most countries of origin, it is commonly believed that the return and employment of nationals makes the difficult situation in the labour market even worse. Social institutions in these countries often remain passive in facilitating the return of migrants and their social and occupational reintegration. The need for return and reintegration policies and programmes has been recognized by few sending countries. In Algeria, governmental bodies offer a wide range of services in this area, including: obtaining accurate information on labour requirements to be met by returning nationals; seeking job offers for workers who would like to return; preparing short- and medium-term plans of return operations; encouraging the recruitment of migrant workers; concluding agreements with employers; and issuing required visas. In Tunisia, a special service has been established that, among other things, deals with: the occupational reintegration of returning migrants through job placement or as self-employed promoters of economic projects; housing; and other problems connected with the resettlement of the returning nationals. In Italy, Spain and Portugal, national, regional and local public, private and state institutions have set up emigration offices, legal and administrative services and vocational guidance and information services to assist workers returning to the country of origin. In Yugoslavia, a new law on the protection of citizens, temporarily employed abroad has been introduced. According to this law, social institutions in the country are responsible for the social and occupational reintegration of migrants. 40/ It is important to note that Yugoslav returnees are not put at a disadvantage in the competition for jobs in the country of origin. Since one of the criteria for establishing priorities when employing people in Yugoslavia is the duration of their unemployment, and the period of a migrant's stay abroad is considered as a period of unemployment, returnees can successfully compete with unemployed workers at home. In addition, qualifications gained abroad by migrants are taken into account by the enterprises in the same way as qualifications of workers who change their place of work within the country. It is also within the competence of the enterprises employing returnees to acknowledge the period of work abroad when calculating entitlements to some social benefits (i.e. longer vacations, priority in solving their housing problems etc.). 88. Most sending countries have introduced legislation to facilitate the importation of equipment that workers require to carry on their occupations in the country of origin as well as the importation of any furniture, electrical home appliances and other personal possessions that they acquired abroad. Various benefits have been introduced for returning migrants, such as preferential interest rates on long-term foreign currency investments and exemption from custom duties on imported goods and equipment. 89. Some sending countries have introduced measures aimed at the reintegration of returning children in the educational system. In Algeria, such measures include priority enrolment of returning children in various educational establishments and boarding schools, priority in granting scholarships and exemption from tests in Arabic. In establishments of higher education, students are allowed to make a choice when enrolling in faculties, institutes etc.; only elementary-level Arabic is required, and scholarships are awarded automatically. In Greece, mother-tongue courses are organized during the school holidays for children and teenagers attending school in a foreign country. Special introductory classes for children returning to the home country have been set up. In secondary schools, special provisions can be made for students who have not passed regular exams to pass on from one class to the next. Free vocational training is available for children at the ages of 15 to 20 who are selected among applicants having completed their compulsory training in another country. In Finland, children returning from Sweden are usually integrated in an equivalent class; in case of linguistic difficulty the same teaching programme is offered in Swedish, and Finnish is studied as a main subject. Special tuition at the rate of six hours a week is provided for children returning from other countries. In Yugoslavia, no supplementary education is organized for returning children, but they are provided individually with the necessary assistance. 90. However, measures designed to help returning migrants with integration problems have been of a rather limited nature. Most returning migrants and members of their families still do not find any assistance when they come back after temporary employment abroad. In Africa, Asia and Latin America, in the case of the normal return of migrants, there is no institutional network to give vocational guidance or family counseling not to mention special arrangements for schooling. But in most cases, certificates of study earned abroad by migrants' children are recognized. 91. In Africa, only in case of expulsion do returning migrants and their families receive some help from public institutions. In such cases, the resettlement schemes developed by the countries of origin depend on the number of returnees, on the financial capability of the country, on the composition of the stream of migrants and on their willingness to accept help. 92. In Latin America, the only step taken up to now in assisting and guiding migrants on their outward and return journeys has been the establishment of frontier offices (in Colombia and Ecuador) in accordance with the Andean Instrument of Labour Migration. 93. It should be stressed that sending countries have had little influence on the level and pace of return migration, which has been largely based on individual decision-making and the policies of the receiving countries rather than on the need and desire of the sending countries. 94. From the experience of some sending countries, one general conclusion might be drawn: if measures designed to integrate returnees economically, socially and culturally in the country of origin are to be effective, they should be conceived as integral parts of plans for local and regional development and should envisage provisions for adequate employment for returnees, the productive utilization of migrants' savings and co-operation with the receiving countries in implementing reintegration schemes. In more general terms, the economic and social reintegration of migrants should be viewed as an integral part of the migratory policy of the country of origin, aimed at accelerating the development of underdeveloped regions and thus eliminating one of the main causes for the migration of the population. III. CONCLUDING REMARKS 95. Despite the fact that international migration trends and policies have been changing rapidly in recent years, there is no indication that the phenomenon is diminishing in its importance as one of the appreciable factors of the world economy, politics and social life. As a recent United Nations survey on international migration policies and programmes states: "While countries are not likely to bring about a halt in future immigration neither are they likely to increase their intake dramatically. Rather, they will continue to 'fine tune' immigration decisions, weighting humanitarian concerns against other political and social objectives, most likely by means of increasingly precise selection processes involving quotas, numerical weightings and so forth". 41/ Therefore, it is reasonable to believe that international migration will remain an economic, social and political issue with ramifications extended to many parts of the world; currently there are few countries that are not touched, in one way or another, by movements of migrant workers. The need for long-term comprehensive social welfare and related policies, in contrast to shorter-term objectives of remedial nature that often turn out to be too late and too little, should be re-emphasized. 96. New needs and dimensions arise, as a result of recent significant changes in world migration patterns, that have long-term implications for the social situation of migrant workers and their families. 97. By closing their frontiers for traditional labour immigration in the early 1970s, some major receiving countries have perhaps reduced the flow of immigrant workers. But, as a result, the structure of the resident foreign population has been considerably modified. Consequently, the integration problem already encountered by immigrants are now assuming unprecedented proportions. Probably the most serious problem is that of social integration of second-generation young immigrants who account for a large and growing share of pupils in the receiving countries and who in the near future will form a substantial part of the work-force in those countries. Their current situation is described in recent research as rootless because young migrants feel foreign both in the countries of residence and in their parents' countries of origin. In the countries of residence, mainly owing to their socio-economic and legal status, they find themselves at a disadvantage in such vitally important areas as education and training and, because of this, represent one of the most vulnerable groups with respect to unemployment. In view of the fact that the difficult economic situation prevails in the major sending countries, it is unlikely that many second-generation young migrants will return to the countries of their parents' origin. However important measures recently introduced in the countries of employment have been, they are of a rather limited scope to bring about a substantial improvement in the condition for genuine integration of young migrants into the host society. Further and intensified efforts will be needed to improve the current unfavourable situation of migrant children and youth, particularly with respect to their education, vocational training and employment. 98. There is a widespread concern that the present adverse economic conditions are contributing to the global increase in irregular migration and, consequently, are making migrants more vulnerable to exploitation, discrimination and abuses, including the neglect of their fundamental human rights. Irregular migration tends to inspire negative attitudes towards normal migration. In many parts of the world, there is a growing hostility by the local population towards immigrants, who must live in a state of permanent insecurity, created by the uncertainty in terms of their own and their children's social and occupational future. Unless properly managed, the situation may create unrest at the regional and international levels. Thus more efforts should be made at the international, regional end local levels to improve the lot of migrant workers and their families and to search for solutions to their many problems based on a stronger interest in international co-operation and mutual development. 99. A dramatic increase in foreign labour in oil-producing countries of the Middle East, which has promoted project-tied and similar migration, also has serious social implications. Under the terms of this type of migration, virtually every aspect of the migrant workers* daily life is under the protection and control of the employer: they are forbidden to form unions while in the Middle East; minimum requirements for accommodation in the camps are not always met; the incidence of work-related deaths and injuries is high and on the increase; and the workmen's compensation system is unsatisfactory. In addition, issues of equal opportunity and treatment are unresolved. 42/ When workers arrive in the host country, the possibility of being exploited is real. Instances in which workers' contracts were violated or even broken unilaterally by the employer have been reported in several countries. Physical and sexual abuse have also been reported, particularly in the case of female workers, such as maids. There have been a number of reports in the press about the serious problems confronting migrant workers' families in the major receiving countries of the region.* The fact that these problems have *See, for example, Judith Miller, "Foreign workers live hard life in Saudi Arabia", New York Times, 15 October 1983. been neither studied nor discussed by policy-makers at both ends of the migratory process gives rise for concern. More efforts at the national, regional and international levels will be needed in order to increase the awareness of the public and Governments concerned of the social situation of the immigrant population in the region and to seek solutions for the many social and humanitarian problems associated with migration. 100. Any comprehensive policy to improve the welfare of migrant workers should take into account the specific needs of their families and children, which does not mean separating the issue of the welfare of the migrant workers from that of their families. It is clear that the children derive not only their status but also their social situation from their parents. The first step in improving the situation of children might be to improve the situation of the parents, for instance by helping them overcome problems of adaptation in the host society and by improving their legal status and living conditions. Thus, any action taken to improve the situation of migrant workers with regard to recruitment, preparation, conditions of life and work, social services, general education and vocational training and preparation for eventual return and reintegration would have an indirect positive effect on the lives of migrant children and their families. At the same time, a number of issues directly affect the situation of children, such as pre-school education, schooling, vocational training, preservation of their national identity and culture and others. Obviously these issues should be fully taken into account in designing and implementing policies and programmes aimed at resolving the problems caused by labour migration. 101. Much remains to be done to break the social barriers that characterize the situation of most migrant workers and their dependants. Improved methods of public information on the situation, needs and expectations of migrant children and their families, which could open up possibilities for greater social and political participation by migrant groups, would be desirable steps towards such a goal. 102. There is an apparent shortage of scientific data needed to understand all the social implications of contemporary labour migration. For example, research on the situation of children and families of migrant workers concentrates mainly on the European region, and there is little information on large parts of the world (Asia, Africa, Latin America). There is a general lack of information on the reintegration of migrant workers and their families in the country of origin. This shortage is disturbing, for it leads people to underestimate the difficulties that may be encountered when steps are taken to reduce the undesirable social effects of international migration. In this area, the United Nations and other organizations concerned have an essential role to play, particularly through research activities on the social consequences of migratory movements of workers in all regions of the world and through the exchange of information and experience. Further concerted efforts of the United Nations, ILO and other specialized agencies concerned will be needed to affirm the rights of migrants and to ensure full implementation of these rights. 103. The substantial progress made by the United Nations in the elaboration of an International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Their Families, pursuant to General Assembly resolution 37/170, is a positive development. It should be pointed out, however, that if the Convention is to contribute significantly to the improvement of the social position of migrant workers and their families, explicit provisions should be included with regard to family reunion, housing and other conditions for a normal family life, the education of children, health care and the preservation of the national and cultural identity of migrant workers as well as minimum standards for services provided specifically for migrants in both sending and receiving countries. International co-operation at different levels should be further developed to ensure that the scope of social programmes on behalf of migrants is commensurate to the migrants' contribution to development. Notes 1/ "Welfare of migrant workers and their families", progress report of the Secretary-General (E/CN.5/568). 2/ A. Lebon and C. Falchi, "New developments in intra-European migration since 1974", International Migration Review, 1980, p. 545. 3/ W.R. Boning, "International migration in Western Europe: reflections of the past five years". International Labour Review, vol. 118, No. 4 (1979). 4/ Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, SOPEMI (Continuous reporting system on migration) (Paris, 1982), p. 33. 5/ Council of Europe, "Report on the situation of migrant workers and members of their families", Second Conference of European Ministers Responsible for Migration Affairs, Strasbourg, 1983, p. 3. 6/ World Labour Report (Geneva, International Labour Office, 1984), p. 107. 7/ Fred Arnold and Nasra M. Shah, "Asian labour migration to the Middle-East" (Honolulu, Hawaii, East-West Center, 1984), p. 4. 8/ "Welfare of migrant workers ...", p. 5, para 13. 9/ World Labour Report ..., p. 108. 10/ Ibid., p. 101. 11/ International Migration Policies and Programmes; A World Survey (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.82.XIII.4). 12/ Donald Kalinde Kowet, "Social situation of migrant workers and their families in Africa", paper prepared for the United Nations global survey, 1984, p. 4. 13/ K.C. Zachariah and Julien Conde, "Migration in West Africa, demographic aspects", a joint World Bank-OECD study (New York, Oxford University Press, 1981), p. 39. 14/ "Migrant workers: Pertinent legislative and administrative regulations on the welfare of migrant workers and their families" (ST/ESA/132). 15/ W.R. Boning, "International migration: Implications for development and policies", paper presented to the International Conference on Population, 1984, Expert Group Meeting on Population Distribution, Migration and Development, Hamamet, Tunisia, 21-25 March 1983, p. 5. 16/ Elisabeth Gordon, "Analysis of the impact of labour-migration on the lives of women in Lesotho", Journal of Development Studies, vol. 17, No. 3 (April 1981), p. 73. 17/ Migrant Workers. General Survey by the Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations, International Labour Conference, 66th session, 1980 (Geneva, International Labour Office, 1981). 18/ "Pertinent regulations concerning the welfare of migrant workers and their families", report of the Secretary-General to the Commission for Social Development (E/CN.5/1983/10), p. 23. 19/ Yves Charbit, "Children of migrant workers and their home countries", International Children's Centre, International Symposium, Ankara, 7-10 June 1977, p. 28. 20/ Ibid., p. 85. 21/ "The welfare of migrant workers and their families", Report of the Expert Group within the European Social Development Programme (S0A/ESDP/1975/3), p. 72. 22/ Arnold and Shah, op. cit., p. 20. 23/ W.A. Dumon, "Family migration and family reunion", ICEM Second Seminar on Adaptation and Integration of Permanent Immigrants (Geneva, ICEM, 1975), vol. XIV, p. 70. 24/ Herbert Leuminger, "The migrant family: socio-political problems and responsibilities", Migration News (Geneva, International Catholic Migration Commission, 1981). 25/ Migrants' Children and Employment: The European Experience (Paris, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 1983), p. 7. 26/ European Social Development Programme, "The welfare of migrant workers and their families" (S0A/ESDP/1975/3), p. 80. 27/ Jonas Widgren, The Position of Second-generation Migrants in Europe. UNDP/IL0 European regional project for second-generation migrants (Geneva, International Labour Office, 1982). 28/ Peter Fendrich, SOPEMI Report on the Federal Republic of Germany (Paris, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 1980), p. 31. 29/ Koula Kassimati, "Recent studies and research on return migration: Lessons to be drawn for policies on vocational, social and cultural (re)integration of second-generation migrants if they return", Integrated report in UNDP/IL0 European regional project for second generation migrants (Geneva, International Labour Office, 1982). 30/ Milenia Cvetic, "Vocational pre-training and training of second generation migrants", paper presented at the UNDP/ILO European regional project for second generation migrants (Granada, International Labour Office, 1982), p. 12. 31/ Leslie J. Limaga, "The situation of young women migrants of the second-generation in Western Europe", paper prepared for the UNDP/ILO 'uropean regional project for second generation migrants (Geneva, International Labour Office, 1981). 32/ International Migration Review, vol. 15, No. 4, p. 695. 33/ Migrants' Children and Employment. The European Experience (Paris, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 1983). 34/ Coulibali Sidiki and others, "L'immigration etrangere dans le Plan de developpement economique, social et culturel 1976-80 de la Republique du Cote d'lvoire", Seminaire de sensibilisation aux problems de migrations en Haute-Volta, 3-9 mars 1980 (Ouagadougou, DRD/INSD, 1980), pp. 134-142. 35/ Council of Europe, Committee on Migration, Refugees and Demography, Draft Report on Manifestations of Xenophobia in the Member States towards Migrant Workers (AS/PR(35)9) (Strasbourg, 1983). 36/ The Economist. 17-23 September 1983. 37/ Council of Europe, Draft Report on Manifestations .... pp. 8-10. 38/ "1982 report of the Federal Republic of Germany in continuous reporting system on migration (SOPEMI)" (Paris, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 1982), pp. 31-32. 39/ Ivo Baucic, "Report on employment situation of second-generation migrants in Europe", prepared for the ILO Tripartite Technical Seminar on Second Generation Migrants, Lisbon, 4-9 May 1981 (Geneva, International Labour Office, 1981), p. 24. 40/ Ibid., pp. 27-29. 41/ International Migration Policies and Programmes ... . 424 World Labour Report ..., p. 112.